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general management plan 





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general management plan 



September 1989 



MINUTE MAN NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK • MASSACHUSETTS 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR / NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



SUMMARY 

This General Management Plan will provide direction for management as well as ensure 

that the historical events and ideals that Minute Man National Historical Park commemorates 

. are properly conveyed to the American public. It will help define a park identity long 

C%. missing, thereby providing management with the means to accommodate changing needs 

while providing the public a clearly recognizable national park area. By approximating the 

*7\ cultural environment that existed in 1775 and protecting its associated historic resources, 

the National Park Service will assist visitors in understanding the social and political 

thoughts and events that led colonial Americans to overcome tyranny, culminating in the 

birth of American independence. The park will thus convey a sense of words and deeds 

that directed the movement against unjust conditions in pre-Revolutionary War America. The 

events commemorated new horizons in democratic experimentation and citizen responsibility 

that continue today, and serve as an inspiration to people throughout the world striving for 

freedom. 

Minute Man National Historical Park was established by Congress (Public Law 86-321) on 
September 21, 1959, "to preserve for the benefit of the American people certain historic 
structures and properties of outstanding national significance associated with the opening 
of The War of the American Revolution, . . ." including "... a number of historic properties, 
buildings, sites, and objects in Boston, Massachusetts, and the vicinity thereof, including the 
road and roadsites between Lexington and Concord, are intimately connected with the 
events that opened the war, and consequently, merit preservation and interpretation in the 
public interest as prime examples of the Nation's historical heritage." 

Portions of the existing 1965 Master Plan are no longer valid, and new management 
directions are needed to respond to regional growth and changes in the environment 
surrounding the park. This final General Management Plan outlines basic management 
strategies that will ensure the protection of the park's significant cultural resources, provide 
better opportunities for visitor understanding of the events of the first day of the 
Revolutionary War - April 19, 1775, evoke the 1775 cultural landscape, and provide 
facilities needed for visitors to appreciate the park's unique resources. 

The park comprises the following three sections: 

• The Battle Road Unit, which follows the route of the 1775 Battle Road for about 5 
miles from Revolutionary Ridge and Meriam's Corner in Concord to Fiske Hill in 
Lexington 

• The North Bridge Unit, the area around The North Bridge in Concord 

• The Wayside Unit, also located in Concord, includes the home of Nathaniel 
Hawthorne and other prominent 19th- and 20th-century literary figures 

Following the November 1 close of the comment period for the May 1988 Draft General 
Management Plan/Environmental Assessment/Land Protection Plan, comments received 
were recorded, analyzed, and modifications made to that document. This final plan presents 
those modifications for each of the park's units. 



in 



BATTLE ROAD UNIT 

The General Management Plan presents a management strategy that will result in the 
partial reestablishment of the 1775 environment within the unit to provide an appreciation 
and interpretation of the physical conditions that existed on April 19, 1775. It proposes 
restoring portions of The Battle Road to their approximate historic, unpaved surface, 
preserving the historic buildings, and restoring the general 18th-century landscape character 
in selected areas. The visitor experience will emphasize walking the restored sections of 
The Battle Road and the adjacent trail system. 

Improved interpretation will help visitors visualize the events of April 19, 1775, by focusing 
on the start of the running battle; the most intense fighting; the 1775 socioeconomic 
environment; well-known events and historic resources; the restored portions of The Battle 
Road and the historic setting; and the context of events prior to the battle and following it. 

The "Land Protection" section describes the land protection strategies to protect lands within 
and adjacent to Minute Man National Historical Park for their current or potential ability to 
affect (1) the primary historic resources the park was created to protect, (2) the historic 
scene, which adds depth and understanding to the interpretation of those resources, and 
(3) visitor safety, through public and private rights-of-way across park lands. 

NORTH BRIDGE UNIT 

Extant structures and landscape features have undergone many changes since 1775, and 
the site has assumed a commemorative character of significance in itself. The area retains 
little of its 1775 appearance; rather, it possesses a number of monuments and other 
features that create an atmosphere of commemoration, including (1) The 1836 Battle 
Monument, (2) The North Bridge, (3) The Minute Man Statue, (4) The British Soldiers' 
Grave, and (5) several memorial plantings. The plan seeks to preserve the commemorative 
character of the unit. 

The plan provides for maximizing the quality of a visit to the North Bridge Unit. It addresses 
the problems of inadequate visitor parking during periods of peak visitation, unsafe access 
to park resources (Muster Field and The North Bridge), and poor site circulation for 
pedestrians and vehicles. Park facilities will be redesigned, and certain visitor functions will 
be curtailed to shorten a visitor's length of stay in the unit. 

THE WAYSIDE UNIT 

The plan makes no change in the management and operation of the park's Wayside Unit, 
but calls for additional restoration work and implementation of existing historic furnishings 
and historic grounds plans for the site. 



IV 



CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION 1 

PURPOSE AND NEED FOR THE PLAN 
THE PLANNING PROCESS 2 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PARK AND EXISTING CONDITIONS 3 

REGIONAL SETTING 5 
LOCATION 5 

DEVELOPMENT CHARACTER 5 
ACCESS AND TRAFFIC PATTERNS 9 
ROUTE 2A TRAFFIC CONDITIONS 9 
PARKING 10 

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PARK 11 

BATTLE ROAD AND NORTH BRIDGE UNITS 11 
WAYSIDE UNIT 12 

CULTURAL RESOURCES 16 

NATURAL RESOURCES 20 
TOPOGRAPHY 20 
WATER 20 
VEGETATION 20 
WILDLIFE 21 
ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES 21 

VISITOR USE AND DEVELOPMENT 22 

THE PLAN 29 

INTRODUCTION 31 

MANAGEMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 32 

THE BATTLE ROAD UNIT 34 
OVERALL CONCEPT 34 
UNITWIDE 34 

Fiske Hill through Nelson Road 42 
Nelson Road to Virginia Road 44 
Virginia Road through Old Bedford Road 44 
Old Bedford Road to Shadyside Lane 45 
Shadyside Lane through Meriam's Corner 45 

THE NORTH BRIDGE UNIT 47 

THE WAYSIDE UNIT 51 

DEVELOPMENT COST ESTIMATES 52 



LAND PROTECTION 55 
INTRODUCTION 55 
ISSUES AND OBJECTIVES 55 
CURRENT LANDOWNERSHIP AND USES 57 
METHODS OF PROTECTION 59 
LAND PROTECTION PRIORITIES 63 

MANAGEMENT ZONING 77 



CONSULTATION AND COORDINATION 81 

SUMMARY OF PUBLIC AND OTHER AGENCY INVOLVEMENT 83 

APPENDIXES/BIBLIOGRAPHY/PLANNING TEAM 87 

APPENDIX A: LEGISLATION 89 

APPENDIX B: TRAFFIC DATA 93 

APPENDIX C: DESCRIPTION OF CULTURAL RESOURCES 94 

APPENDIX D: VISITOR USE DATA 

APPENDIX E: CLASSIFICATION OF PARK ROADS 113 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 116 

PLANNING TEAM AND CONSULTANTS 118 



VI 



MAPS 



Vicinity 6 

Existing Conditions 7 

Troop Movement 13 

Floodplains 23 

Wetlands 25 

Vegetative Cover 27 

Landscape Management 35 

Battle Road Unit Plan 37 

North Bridge Unit Plan 49 

Land Protection Recommendations - Segment 1 67 

Land Protection Recommendations - Segment 2 69 

Land Protection Recommendations - Segment 3 71 

Land Protection Recommendations - Segment 4 73 

North Bridge Unit - Land Protection Recommendations - Segment 5 75 

Management Zoning 79 



TABLES 



1: Historic Buildings 17 

2: Treatments for Cultural Resources - Battle Road Unit 40 

3: Treatments for Cultural Resources - North Bridge Unit 48 

4: Summary of Existing Land Protection 57 

5: Local Planning and Land Use Regulations 60 

6: Summary of Land Protection Recommendations 64 

7: Land Protection Priority List 65 



VII 



INTRODUCTION 



Minute Man National Historical Park was established in 1959 to "consolidate, preserve, 
selectively restore and interpret portions of the Lexington-Concord Battle Road, as well as 
associated structures, properties and sites so that the visitor may better appreciate and 
understand the beginning of the American Revolution as a significant chapter in the 
American Historical Heritage." (House Document 57, 78th Congress, January 27, 1959) 

The park lies within the towns of Concord, Lincoln, and Lexington. The 750-acre park is 
comprised of the following three sections: The Battle Road Unit, where the running battle 
which opened the American Revolution began; the North Bridge Unit, site of the "shot 
heard 'round the world"; and the Wayside Unit, which includes the home of three prominent 
19th-century literary families. 

PURPOSE AND NEED FOR THE PLAN 

The original Master Plan for Minute Man National Historical Park was approved in 1965. 
At that time it was assumed that State Route 2A would be relocated, thereby removing 
traffic from the alignment of the historic route. Following this construction, the National Park 
Service was to take over administration of The Battle Road. Public controversy over the 
bypass alignment, however, caused the state to delay construction of the new road. 
Because many of the master plan's proposals were contingent on federal ownership of The 
Battle Road, only some of them have been implemented. 

Since the 1960s the park has experienced increasing regional development pressures, 
increasing commuter traffic on area roads and highways, and uncertainty regarding when 
or if Route 2A would be relocated. Consequently, a new planning effort was initiated to 
reexamine long-term goals for the park and to explore development and management 
actions that will enhance visitor enjoyment and safety and resource protection. 

Portions of the 1965 Master Plan are no longer valid, and new management directions are 
needed to respond to regional growth and changes in the environment surrounding the 
park. This final General Management Plan outlines basic management strategies that will 
ensure the protection of the park's significant cultural resources, provide better opportunities 
for visitor understanding of the events of April 19, 1775, the first day of the American 
Revolutionary War, and provide facilities needed for visitors to appreciate the park's unique 
resources. The plan will provide the necessary strategies to guide management, use, and 
development of the park for the next 10 to 15 years. Details for individual sites will be 
developed at subsequent stages of planning and design, and actions will be undertaken as 
funds, detailed plans and studies, legislation, and necessary coordination with the towns 
and other agencies permit. 

Encroaching development on all sides of the Battle Road corridor has limited options for 
preserving the 18th-century character of Minute Man National Historical Park. Recognized 
by the Massachusetts Historical Commission a decade ago as a major problem, 
development pressures on "rural fringe areas" continue unabated. An evaluation of park 
lands is needed to determine if additional lands are necessary to achieve the park mission, 
if acquisition of additional lands is desirable, or if any lands currently within the park are 
surplus to park purposes. The "Land Protection" section of this document analyzes these 
concerns. 



THE PLANNING PROCESS 

An informational paper, "Battle Road - Memorial or Arterial?", published and distributed in 
1983, effectively initiated the planning process. An early component of the general 
management planning effort occurred in 1984 when the Department of Landscape 
Architecture of Harvard University's Graduate School of Design undertook a third-year 
graduate student project to generate a data base and investigate three different proposals 
for the park, which ranged from partial to complete restoration of The Battle Road corridor. 
Their study was published in a 1985 booklet entitled "Alternative Futures for Minute Man 
National Historical Park." 

Since the beginning of the National Park Service's general management planning effort, 
public input has been sought in several ways (also see "Consultation and Coordination" 
section). A newsletter entitled "The Correspondent" has been issued periodically to update 
the public on planning progress, to solicit comments and attendance at meetings, to provide 
summaries of public meetings, and to make other announcements. In the summer of 1985, 
public meetings were held to identify issues that the plan would resolve. Public meetings, 
as well as a series of meetings with special interest groups, state and local government 
representatives, and interested individuals, were held to discuss preliminary plan alternatives 
in 1986, 1987, and in January 1988. Workbooks distributed in conjunction with the meetings 
have been returned with many written comments. Additionally, the park staff has established 
a planning exhibit room at the North Bridge Visitor Center and has collected written and 
verbal comments from visitors. The May 1988 issue of "The Correspondent" announced the 
distribution of the draft plan for public review until August 1 . 

The Draft General Management Plan/Environmental Assessment/Land Protection Plan (May 
1988) presented the National Park Service's former proposal as well as alternatives for 
addressing park problems and future development. The NPS planning process requires the 
evaluation of impacts of several alternative actions. Factors that were assessed included 
the effects of all the alternatives on cultural and natural resources, visitors, park 
administration and operations, and local and regional transportation. 

Two open houses and several topic-oriented meetings were held. Also, in response to 
general public and local official requests, the public comment period was extended to 
November 1 , 1988, and NPS planners met with local boards, committees, and neighborhood 
groups. A newsletter was sent to clarify some common questions. 

During the extended public review period in 1988, park managers and planners attended 
over 30 meetings. Following the close of the five-month public comment period for the draft 
plan, comments were reviewed. Follow-up meetings were held in January and February 
1989 to clarify comments received. A Record of Public Involvement documenting the 
planning process and public input was prepared. A Record of Decision directing plan 
modifications was formulated and made publicly available in July 1989. The modifications 
made as a result of the public comment period are presented in this final General 
Management Plan. 



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REGIONAL SETTING 



LOCATION 

Minute Man National Historical Park is located approximately 16 miles west-northwest of 
Boston, Massachusetts (see Vicinity map). The region surrounding the park has grown and 
developed from a semirural area to a high-tech suburban one and is experiencing all the 
pressures of such growth. The dirt road followed by the British soldiers has evolved into 
a modern highway, one of many in a complicated network within Boston and its suburbs. 

High density, rapid growth, and a booming economy have pushed residential, commercial, 
and industrial development closer and closer to the park. This development has brought 
with it increased traffic, noise, and density that interfere with the congressional purpose of 
the park and impair the visitors' experience of park resources. Visitors are often unsure 
when they are entering or leaving the park. Traffic patterns, land use, and inadequate 
signing all contribute to safety hazards, visitor confusion, and disorientation. 

DEVELOPMENT CHARACTER 

The park is within the towns of Concord, Lincoln, and Lexington, each of which has distinct 
needs, concerns, and character. Collectively, however, the park and towns include some 
of the region's most significant historic and open space resources. Decisions made by the 
park affect these and other neighboring towns; similarly, land use decisions made by the 
towns affect Minute Man National Historical Park. 

Residential development patterns in the area are mainly low density suburban with a 
preponderance of single-family homes that create 20th-century intrusions (traffic, noise, and 
visual impacts). Office, commercial, and light industrial development also occur near the 
park, and impacts of these land uses are much greater and more difficult to mitigate. 

Hanscom Air Force Base, directly north of the park, generates much traffic along Route 2A, 
and base housing is visible to visitors at several locations in the park. Recent construction 
has created additional visual impact on the park and may lead to increased slope erosion. 

Adjacent to the Air Force Base is Laurence G. Hanscom Field, a public airport owned and 
operated by the Massachusetts Port Authority (MASSPORT). While the airport is not directly 
visible from the park, increasing airplane noise and air and ground traffic generated by the 
airport have negative impacts on the park. Hanscom Field is the second busiest airport in 
New England. 

Parcels of publicly owned land adjacent to the park boundary include a regional vocational- 
technical school, a sanitary landfill and transfer station, and several parcels of conservation 
land. In addition, private development includes several office parks, a hotel/restaurant 
complex, and expanding residential construction. High voltage power lines cross the park 
at the Bluff west of Fiske Hill on a strip of land owned by Boston Edison. 



JOHN BUTTRICK 
\V HOUSE 




NORTH 



900 



1800 FEET 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 
MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

406 I 20015B 



OSC I JUNE 6 9 



NORTH BRIDGE 
VISITOR CENTER 

IBUTTRICK MANSION) 



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JOHN BUTTRICK 
HOUSE 




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:iraca BATTLE ROAD TRACES 



PARK 



C3aaa RESTORED HISTORIC BATTLE ROAD 
mmbmi PAVED HISTORIC BATTLE ROAD 
TOWN CONSERVATION LANDS 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 
MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 



900 1800 FEET 



ACCESS AND TRAFFIC PATTERNS 

State Routes 2 and 2A provide major east-west traffic corridors between the circumferential 
routes around the west side of the Boston metropolitan area. Traffic has increased 
dramatically on these radial corridors because of new development and employment growth 
along the beltway in the northwest quadrant of the area. Increasing commuter use of these 
routes has produced congestion and safety problems on these routes and on town roads 
near the park as well as in the town centers. According to the Metropolitan Area Planning 
Council, there is nearly a 4 percent increase in Boston metropolitan traffic annually. 

Until the early 1980s, Route 2A continued westward into Concord Center on Lexington 
Road. Today, however, it follows an alignment southwest on Bypass Road in Lincoln to 
Route 2. Lexington Road, west of Bypass Road, is now under the jurisdiction of the Town 
of Concord. 

Interstate 95/State Highway 128 (1-95/Route 128) brings traffic from the north and south 
to Route 2A which directly serves the east end of the park. Route 2A carries east-west 
traffic through a major portion of the Battle Road Unit of the park and follows nearly 4 
miles of the Battle Road. The North Bridge Unit of the park can be reached by continuing 
west from Route 2A on Lexington Road into Concord Center and then north on Monument 
Street or Lowell Road to Liberty Street. 

Route 2 parallels 2A to the south and is a major east-west highway from Boston to the 
west. Westbound traffic on Route 2 can access the Battle Road Unit to the north from 
several town roads or continue westward on Cambridge Turnpike (town road) to Concord 
Center. The state is currently upgrading Route 2, but it will not result in significant capacity 
increases of the roadway. 

ROUTE 2A TRAFFIC CONDITIONS 

Route 2A (The Battle Road) is a state-owned and state-maintained highway classified as 
a minor suburban arterial in the state highway system. The roadway is 24 to 26 feet wide 
with two travel lanes without shoulders. The steady stream of traffic, numerous 
intersections, and limited lines-of-sight along 2A make travel hazardous, especially for park 
visitors. There are no bikeways or significant pedestrian trails along the road corridor to 
accommodate safe, nonmotorized circulation. For instance, 20,000 cars per day travel on 
the section of Route 2A at the east end of the park (Marrett Road). 

Traffic controls on roads approaching Route 2A consist mainly of stop signs and yield 
signs. In addition, flashing beacons are provided at the intersections of Route 2A with 
Hanscom Drive and Lexington Road. Through the efforts of the Town of Lexington, the 
intersection of Route 2A and New Massachusetts Avenue will be signalized and channelized 
for left-turn movement from 2A in the future. At Hanscom Drive a left-turn lane is provided 
on eastbound Route 2A. 

Traffic on Route 2A through the park is particularly congested during the morning and 
evening peak hours on weekdays and remains heavy during most of the day. New office 
space at the east end of the Battle Road Unit, office and residential development north of 
Virginia Road, and anticipated development at the civilian and military airports has and will 
generate additional traffic on Route 2A. Traffic delays result from the inability of Route 2A 
to accommodate the high volume of traffic and the conflicts between turning and 
through-movements at the major road intersections. Park visitors now experience frustration 



when attempting to pull over and stop at points of interest along The Battle Road because 
of heavy traffic and inadequate roadside space. Such efforts are difficult and dangerous. 

Appendix B contains traffic data on Route 2A currently available from regional transportation 
planning agencies. 

Specific concerns for the park presented by Route 2A include the following: 

Sections of the route are handling more traffic than designed to handle. 

Everywhere in the park traffic noise is a constant intrusion to visitors. 

Overhead utility lines along and crossing all the public roads are a visual intrusion on 
the historic scene. 

Traffic and associated regulatory lights and signs on all public roads, particularly Route 
2A, are a visual intrusion everywhere in the park. 

Modern day public roads mask the historic road. 

Visitor facilities are too near the heavily traveled Route 2A. 

The U.S. Air Force's and MASSPORT's Hanscom facilities, the regional school, and 
private office developments present visual intrusions at several locations. 

Section 4(f) of the Department of Transportation Act mandates that the Secretary of 
Transportation make a determination as to whether or not any project that requires the use 
of land from a public park, recreation area, or wildlife and waterfowl refuge can be 
accomplished in a manner for which there is no prudent and feasible alternative and that 
all measures to minimize harm have been undertaken. The widening of Route 2A on Minute 
Man National Historical Park land would be subject to the provisions of section 4(f). 

PARKING 

There are five designated parking areas in the park - Fiske Hill (22 car spaces), Battle 
Road Visitor Center (32 car/12 bus spaces), The Wayside (28 car spaces), The North 
Bridge (58 car/4 bus spaces), and North Bridge Visitor Center (44 car/4 bus spaces). In 
addition, there is a turnout at the Paul Revere Capture Wayside and a small parking area 
near the Ebenezer Fiske House foundation. Parking space is also available at some of the 
historic structures. Parking is not available at Meriam's Corner or at the Bloody Angles. 

Parking is very congested at the heavily visited North Bridge Unit. Spaces are provided at 
the town-owned lot on Monument Street and at the North Bridge Visitor Center lot. Weather 
permitting, overflow parking is accommodated on NPS land south of The Old Manse. This 
lot accommodates a maximum of 65 cars, and is used 50-60 days per year, especially on 
weekends in peak visitor season. Visitors who park at the Monument Street lot must cross 
the road to reach The North Bridge - an inconvenient and unsafe situation. 



10 



SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PARK 



No bit of ground in all the world, save only the field Runny mede, where King John signed 
the Magna Carta in 1215, holds equal place in the mind and imagination of free peoples. 

Thomas Boylston Adams 

BATTLE ROAD AND NORTH BRIDGE UNITS 

The Battle Road and North Bridge units of Minute Man National Historical Park encompass 
portions of the road along which the American War for Independence began on April 19, 
1775. The fighting on that day signaled the end of a long political struggle between the 
British government and the American colonies and the beginning of eight years of military 
conflict. The Americans began that day as free, loyal subjects of the crown defending 
traditional British rights that included resistance against unlawful acts of parliament and the 
self-determination of their affairs through a responsive, representative government. By the 
end of that day, they had demonstrated that they were willing to die, if necessary, to 
ensure preservation of their rights. 

Earlier, in response to the Boston Tea Party on December 16, 1773, King George III and 
his ministers had pushed through parliament a series of measures collectively known in the 
colonies as the "Intolerable" or "Coercive" acts which, among other things, closed the port 
of Boston, placed Massachusetts under the military rule of Maj. Gen. Sir Thomas Gage, 
and generally infringed on what the colonies believed to be their rights and interests. 

Acutely aware of Gage's force in Boston, the provincial congress of Massachusetts urged 
the officers in each town to enlist a quarter of their militia in minuteman organizations and 
to begin stockpiling ammunition and other military stores. A major depot for these stores 
was established at Concord, some 18 miles northwest of Boston. 

On the evening of April 18, 1775, Gage, who had learned of the military stores at Concord, 
sent a detachment of 700 light infantry and grenadiers under command of Lt. Col. Francis 
Smith to destroy the stores. Detecting the plan, the Americans sent alarm riders including 
Paul Revere and William Dawes, to spread the alarm throughout the countryside. At sunrise 
on April 19 the British detachment found part of the Lexington militia assembled on the 
town common. A shot was fired, its origin unknown, and without any clear orders the British 
regulars fired a volley and charged with bayonets. The militia quickly dispersed, leaving 
eight dead and ten wounded. 

The British column marched on toward Concord after only a slight delay. The Concord 
minutemen and militia, greatly outnumbered, withdrew as the British arrived. As the British 
deployed to occupy the town and search for military stores, the Americans crossed The 
North Bridge and retired to a hill nearby (see Troop Movement map). Shortly after the 
Americans passed, 200 of the British force crossed the bridge to search for military stores 
at Barrett's farm, 1-1/2 miles away, and left about 90 soldiers to secure the bridge. 

Finding some stores in the town center, the British proceeded to burn them. The smoke 
from that fire was visible to the Americans and caused them to believe that the British had 
set fire to the town. By this time, other companies had joined Concord's and they had 
moved to the Muster Field, overlooking the bridge. Soon their ranks had grown to about 
400 men. Colonel James Barrett led the militia and minutemen down the hill toward the 
bridge to protect their town. The British guarding the bridge withdrew across it and 

11 



attempted to remove the planking. As the American column advanced, the British fired a 
few shots into the river and, when the Americans continued to advance, fired a volley that 
left two dead and several more wounded. For the first time the Americans were ordered to 
return the fire, killing two British soldiers and wounding many others, and causing the 
British to break ranks and flee to the town center. 

The Americans paused when they saw that the town was safe, and the British who had 
searched Barrett's farm rejoined their compatriots in the town center without difficulty. The 
British commander regrouped his men and they began the return march to Boston. 
Meanwhile, the Americans were joined by more militia and minuteman companies and 
began to move parallel to the British. At Meriam's Corner, east of Concord center, the 
British rear guard and the Americans exchanged shots, beginning a running fight that 
continued all the way back to Lexington. 

The British troops were demoralized and nearly out of ammunition by the time they reached 
Lexington. They were saved from being forced to surrender by the arrival of 1,000 
reinforcements with two cannon. The reinforcements held the Americans at bay and 
provided the British with an opportunity to rest briefly and regroup. Once the British 
resumed their march, the Americans, further reinforced by additional militia and minuteman 
companies, closed in and continued to harass the British until they reached Bunker Hill and 
the protection of the guns of the British fleet in the harbor. 

When the fighting had stopped, the British force of about 1,700 men had suffered 273 
casualties either killed, wounded, or missing. The American casualties were 95 killed and 
wounded, out of an estimated 3,700 men who engaged the British column. By nightfall, the 
Americans had laid siege to Boston by closing all its land approaches. 

The American determination to fight and die if necessary for their rights, homes, and 
community showed a firm resolve to resist any British attempt to impose will by armed 
force. The fighting also convinced the Americans that an armed citizenry could defeat a 
professional British army. 

The events of April 19, 1775, also had immediate significance for the larger colonial cause. 
The bloodshed was an irrefutable argument for the creation of a provincial army responsive 
to the Continental Congress. It solidified the Massachusetts colony's support of armed 
resistance, and shortly thereafter the citizens of other colonies were forced to choose 
between the American cause or the crown's protection. The running fight devastated any 
hopes many colonists had for a reconciliation with Great Britain, shattered the illusion that 
American militiamen would never stand up to British regulars, and ended the British 
pretense of governing Massachusetts. Some eight years later, the American colonies would 
become an independent, sovereign nation. 



WAYSIDE UNIT 

The Wayside, a national historic landmark in its own right, emphasizes a secondary park 
theme: the Concord literary tradition. The home of Samuel Whitney, Concord muster master 
on April 19, 1775, The Wayside was also the first Concord residence of Bronson Alcott and 
his family, including his daughter Louisa May Alcott, in the mid-1 9th century. They sold the 
house to Nathaniel Hawthorne, who lived in it with his wife and three children. 



12 




NORTH 



900 



1800 FEET 



TROOP MOVEMENT 
APRIL 19, 1775 

MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

406 |20043 
DSclsEPT 89 




BRITISH FLANKING PARTIES 
► 



MILITIA CONCENTRATIONS 



MAJOR 
CONFRONTATIONS 



TROOP MOVEMENT 
APRIL 19, 1775 

MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 



900 1800 FEET 



Daniel Lothrop, a respected publisher of children's literature, purchased the house from 
Hawthorne's daughter and son-in-law. Lothrop acquired the well-known home, substantially 
expanded since Whitney's days, as a summer home for himself and his bride, Harriett M. 
Lothrop, a renowned children's author. Writing under the pen name Margaret Sidney, she 
had already begun to write the "Five Little Peppers" series, and she continued writing it, as 
well as numerous other books, short stories, poems, and articles. Her patriotic fervor moved 
her to found the Children of the American Revolution, paralleling the structure of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution, in 1895. 

The Lothrop family remained in The Wayside for more than 80 years. In 1965 daughter 
Margaret Lothrop, herself a published author, sold the house to the federal government. 
Now restored to its appearance at the time of Harriett Lothrop's death in 1924, The 
Wayside is interpreted as the home of all of its former literary occupants. 



15 



CULTURAL RESOURCES 



Although the park contains many cultural resources from the time of the battle, most of 
them have been significantly altered. Perhaps the most significant, The Battle Road, has 
been incorporated into the present Route 2A/Lexington Road alignment, although a few 
isolated segments of the road are no longer paved. The Nelson Road section has recently 
been restored by the National Park Service to its approximate historical appearance. Most 
other historic roads within the park have been paved for modern use. 

Along The Battle Road are a number of sites of particular interest. East of Concord Center, 
at the intersection where Old Bedford Road joins The Battle Road (Meriam's Corner), the 
John Meriam House and Barn gave cover to the patriots, allowing them to get close to the 
British column as it crossed the narrow bridge there. The shots exchanged between the 
colonists and the British rear guard opened the running battle on the road to Boston. 
Farther east, at Hardy's Hill, the militia from Sudbury and towns to the south joined the 
fighting and subjected the British to fire from both flanks. The road made two sharp turns 
east of Hardy's Hill, which provided ambush points for the Woburn militia and others. In the 
murderous crossfire, eight British soldiers and several minute men including the captain of 
the Bedford Company were killed - the area has come to be called the Bloody Angles. 

Just east of the Battle Road Visitor Center is a small rocky hill, the Bluff, along The Battle 
Road, which presented a significant obstacle to the British while it was held by the 
colonials. The column appeared trapped until Major Pitcairn sent a detachment to occupy 
the high ground while the column moved past and reformed. 

Fiske Hill and the area around the house of Ebenezer Fiske was the scene of intense, 
close-quarter fighting, as British flankers tried to flush out the concealed ambushers. 
Although the national historical park ends here, the fighting continued on through Lexington, 
Menotomy (present-day Arlington), and Cambridge until the British reached Bunker Hill. 

The National Park Service manages 12 historic buildings that were standing at the time of 
the battle. Two of these have been restored: (1) the Ephraim Hartwell Tavern - originally 
opened in 1 754 - provided travelers with bed and board and was also a popular gathering 
place for local people; and (2) the William Smith House, which was the home of the captain 
of the Lincoln minutemen. Of the remaining 10 battle era buildings, The Wayside and 
Wayside Barn have been restored to their appearance in 1924 when Harriett Lothrop died, 
and the others appear as they did at the time they were acquired by the federal 
government. 

Nine historic buildings built between 1776 and 1900 are also managed by the park. Several 
of these structures, however, only postdate the battle less than 50 years and could be 
preserved to supplement the colonial character of the area. In addition, the Buttrick Mansion 
and outbuildings, built in 1911, currently serve as the park's administrative headquarters and 
North Bridge Visitor Center. 

Table 1 provides a list of all historic buildings in the park along with information on their 
dates of construction, architectural integrity, and present uses. 



16 



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17 



All of the park's 19th-century buildings have been identified. Most modern (post-1920) 
structures purchased by the federal government have been removed except those 
maintained by the former owners under use and occupancy agreements. 

Two major historic sites within the park boundary are not owned by the federal government. 
First, the immediate area of The North Bridge, including the bridge itself, the Minute Man 
Statue, and the lane approaching the bridge along with adjacent parking facilities, are 
owned by the Town of Concord and are maintained by the National Park Service through 
a cooperative agreement. Second, The Old Manse, which was standing at the time of the 
battle, is owned, administered, and maintained by The Trustees of Reservations, a private, 
nonprofit organization. 

Another site of note within the Battle Road Unit is a wayside pullout that commemorates 
the site of Paul Revere's capture. Local artisan Paul Revere, Dr. Samuel Prescott, and 
William Dawes were confronted by a British patrol as they rode through the early morning 
darkness on April 19 to warn Concord of the approaching British column. Revere was 
captured and Dawes was forced back to Lexington, but Prescott escaped to carry word of 
the British march to Concord. 

Archeological remains have been identified at 19 sites known to have been occupied at the 
time of the battle. In addition, there are approximately 25 miles of stone walls, which often 
mark historic boundaries. The park contains a number of other known prehistoric and 
historic archeological sites, and it is anticipated that additional historic and prehistoric sites 
will be identified once the extensive archeological survey currently underway is completed. 
While the primary focus of the survey is to identify historic resources, principally 
revolutionary-era building sites and farmsteads, it also contains a component that will 
identify prehistoric resources within park boundaries in agreement with the Massachusetts 
Historical Commission's management needs for eastern Massachusetts. Appendix C lists 
all known archeological resources in the park. 

Historically, the landscape consisted of home lots, fields, meadows, and pastures 
interspersed with orchards, woodlands, and an occasional marshy area. While these same 
elements can be found in the park today, they do not represent the historic configuration. 
For example, what were once mostly open agricultural lands are now primarily wooded 
areas since the decline of agricultural use following World War II. To date, only minimal 
landscape re-creation has been undertaken at the park. Currently, certain fields are kept 
open by area farmers as pasture or croplands through leases issued by the park. 

In 1983 the National Park Service commissioned Dr. Joyce L. Malcolm to research the 
battle era appearance of the landscape now included within the park's boundaries. In 1985 
the Minute Man National Historical Park archeological project was initiated with the following 
goals: to describe and explain the physical appearance of 18th-century farmsteads, 
particularly the home lot, through interdisciplinary research, and to locate portions of the 
historic Battle Road. The results of these efforts provide important data and will be useful 
to park management when historic landscape re-creation and interpretation are undertaken. 

The park's museum collection includes historical, archival, and architectural materials and 
a sizable archeological collection. Most of the historical collection is on exhibit at The 
Wayside; selected items are included in exhibits at the two visitor centers. Small portions 
of the archeological collection are also exhibited, but most of it is stored for reference and 
research, as are the archival and architectural collections. Detailed information regarding the 
park's museum collection is included in appendix C. 



18 



The entire park is included on the National Register of Historic Places. National Register 
forms have not been completed to document the significance of the park's resources. 
Completion of these forms remains a high priority for the National Park Service and will be 
initiated once all the necessary historical and archeological information is available. Three 
areas, either partially or wholly within the park boundary - the Concord Historic District, The 
Old Manse, and The Wayside - are listed individually on the National Register. 

Because Minute Man National Historical Park is included on the National Register of Historic 
Places, actions affecting it, such as adoption and implementation of the plan, are subject 
to comment by the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation and the Massachusetts State 
Historic Preservation Officer. Pursuant to regulations promulgated by the council (36 CFR 
800), the National Park Service, the Advisory Council, and the National Conference of State 
Historic Preservation Officers have executed a programmatic memorandum of agreement 
for the NPS planning process. In accordance with the provisions of that agreement, staffs 
of the council and the Massachusetts Historical Commission have participated in the 
development of this document through reviews of draft plans. 

Along with NPS policies, guidelines, and standards as amended in 1981, the 1979 
programmatic memorandum of agreement requires the National Park Service to take into 
account state historic preservation plans as it develops planning documents for its park 
sites. Cultural Resources in Massachusetts: A Model for Management (Massachusetts 
Historical Commission 1979) establishes a broad framework for the preservation, 
interpretation, and management of the state's resources. The General Management Plan 
for Minute Man National Historical Park addresses many of the concerns expressed in that 
1979 report. The research on which the plan is based addresses the five management 
needs for eastern Massachusetts articulated in the state plan. In addition, many of the study 
units listed in the 1979 plan and the local surveys for Lexington, Lincoln, and Concord have 
already been incorporated into the interpretive programs of the park. 

The role of early highways and the development of taverns, for example, are presented 
at the Hartwell Tavern. The topic of architecture from the colonial period to the early years 
of the 20th century is reflected in the number of structures (rehabilitated and adaptively 
used) that are located throughout the park. The National Park Service is proposing to reuse 
with minimal restoration all 18th- and 19th-century buildings in the park, as well as the 191 1 
Buttrick home overlooking the North Bridge Unit. These varied elements of the plan 
collectively meet the basic goals of the state's plan for historic preservation programs. It 
integrates the consideration of the physical remains of the past into current management 
and planning decisions, advocates the importance of preserving both representative and 
outstanding properties, and demonstrates "the importance of a better understanding of the 
past through the study of remaining cultural resources." (See page 2 of the Cultural 
Resources in Massachusetts: A Model for Management.) 



19 



NATURAL RESOURCES 



TOPOGRAPHY 

The park is characterized by flat plains and low-rolling hills composed of unconsolidated 
glacial deposits that overlie a complex geology of metamorphic and igneous bedrock, and 
it lies within the Seaboard Lowland Section of the New England physiographic province. The 
rounded hills, such as Revolutionary Ridge in Concord, are composed of glacial till, although 
the hills in the eastern end of the park have a bedrock core. Elevations vary from 120 feet 
above sea level along the Concord River in the Town of Concord to 307 feet at the summit 
of Fiske Hill in the Town of Lexington. 

WATER 

The park lies along watershed boundaries of the Concord River flowing north, the 
Shawsheen River flowing northeast, and the Charles River flowing east. The Concord River 
flows through the North Bridge Unit of the park. The Concord is a slow-moving river with 
a wide floodplain and extensive contiguous wetlands that provide food and cover for a 
variety of wildlife associated with riparian vegetation. Flooding occurs along the river, but 
it is not a serious threat to park resources other than minor erosion along the banks. Mill 
Brook rises in areas south of Lexington Road, crosses The Battle Road at the Meriam's 
Corner area, and flows into the Concord River above The North Bridge. Elm Brook flows 
across the Battle Road Unit, agricultural and residential lands of Hanscom Field, then on 
into the Shawsheen River. The waters of the Shawsheen, Concord, and Charles rivers are 
taken for domestic uses downstream. Lands south of the park at the east end lie within the 
watershed for the City of Cambridge reservoirs; therefore, contaminated runoff from Routes 
2, 2A, and 128 is of environmental concern. Any park development that could have an 
impact on the Cambridge watershed must be carefully evaluated. 

To the extent possible, no development will be done in the floodplain of the Concord River 
or its tributaries. Any development determined to be in the 100- and 500-year floodplains 
will comply with "Floodplain Management Guidelines for Implementing Executive Order 
11988" (Water Resources Council, Federal Register, February 10, 1978) - see Floodplains 
map. 

Maps prepared by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service were consulted to determine the 
effects of proposed development on designated wetlands in and adjacent to the park. 
Several wetland areas, including Folly Pond, have been identified on the USFWS National 
Wetland Inventory (see Wetlands map). The Massachusetts Department of Environmental 
Quality Engineering and the conservation commissions of the towns will be notified to help 
determine effects on wetlands in the adjacent communities and establish conditions upon 
which site plans may proceed prior to any development. 

VEGETATION 

Vegetation studies indicate that forests reoccupied the land soon after the glaciers withdrew 
between 10,000 and 12,000 years ago. Dominant species included oak-chestnut-hickory 
associations, as well as pine, maple, elm, walnut, white birch, hemlock, and locust. At the 
time of European contact, the area was covered by mature deciduous hardwood forests with 
some open river meadows and lowland areas maintained by the Algonquin Indians. There 
is evidence that about 1635 a major storm occurred that destroyed a substantial acreage 

20 



of mature forest. These open areas attracted the early settlers looking for suitable 
agricultural land. The forested lands were cleared, and by the early 1800s only 10 percent 
of the forest remained. 

The Vegetative Cover map compares the cover in 1 775 to that of the present. There has 
been a gradual closing in of old field areas, and today, most of the park is second-growth 
forest with oak, maple, birch, beech, ash, eastern white pine, and brush at successional 
stage. Open fields, formerly used for agriculture, are slowly returning to forest. 

Grasses, including the native bluegrasses and the introduced timothy, redtop, and orchard 
grass, are also a significant cover type. Weeds and poison ivy cover those areas recently 
cultivated or otherwise disturbed. 



WILDLIFE 

The wildlife populations of the park area reflect the changes in vegetation patterns. The 
extensive forested areas provided habitat for few wildlife species because the closed canopy 
of the mature forest restrict growth of understory food plants. However, the agricultural 
expansion of the 1700s and 1800s opened the forest and created more diverse land use 
patterns suitable for deer, moose, foxes, raccoons, skunks, minks, squirrels, woodchucks, 
rabbits, muskrats, and other rodents. Birds included woodcocks, ruffed grouse, hawks, 
songbirds, herons, gulls, and a variety of waterfowl. 

As farming expanded to its greatest extent in the early 19th century, the open land with 
lack of cover reduced wildlife habitat, and as a result, reduced wildlife species diversity and 
numbers. During the early 1900s, when many fields were abandoned and allowed to grow 
into brush and woodlands, wildlife populations increased. 

Small animals in the park include raccoons, skunks, squirrels, woodchucks, muskrats, and 
other common species. On occasion, white-tailed deer may be seen. Numerous species of 
small birds are seen in the grass, brush, and woodland vegetation in the park. Several 
species of ducks use the wetland areas along the Concord River, especially during spring 
and fall migration periods. Canada geese may also be seen along the river during these 
times. A variety of freshwater fish, including catfish and perch, are in the Concord River. 
Likewise, a variety of amphibians, reptiles, and insects can be found in the park. There are 
no significant wildlife problems in the park. 

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES 

The Fish and Wildlife Service has indicated by letter dated October 2, 1986, that except 
for occasional transient animals, no federally listed or proposed threatened or endangered 
plants or animals are known to exist in or adjacent to the park. The Massachusetts Natural 
Heritage Program (communication dated December 9, 1987) lists 70 species of vertebrates 
and 21 species of invertebrates as endangered, threatened, or of special concern. The state 
agency did not indicate the existing location or extent of range of these animal species. 
Areas within the park will be surveyed for the presence of state-listed species prior to any 
development. 



21 



VISITOR USE AND DEVELOPMENT 



Visitation to Minute Man National Historical Park has been reported at approximately 1 
million visits per year over the last 10 years. Peak visitation occurs in July and August 
and again in October because of the fall color. April, May, June, and September are also 
busy months, but visitation drops significantly from November through February. 

According to the park's current "Statement for Interpretation," 42 percent of the park's 
visitors are from the general New England region, 32 percent are from other areas of the 
country, and 21 percent are from the local area. There is also a significant number (5 
percent) of visitors from foreign countries. From initial parking monitoring efforts, most 
visitors (67 percent) spend between one and two hours in the park, 20 percent spend 
between two and three hours, and approximately 5 percent spend less than one hour. 

The North Bridge Unit is by far the most heavily visited site. In 1988 when the total park 
visitation was approximately 1,001,990 visits, visitation to the North Bridge area was 
estimated at 620,000 visits. During the same period, visitation at the Battle Road Visitor 
Center and Fiske Hill parking areas was recorded at 154,000 and 191,000 visits, 
respectively. Visits to The Wayside totaled about 5,440. No data are available to determine 
how many visitors go to more than one site in the park. Appendix D provides visitor use 
data on annual and monthly park visitation. 

The park has two visitor centers - one at The North Bridge Unit and one at Route 2A near 
the east end of the Battle Road Unit. The North Bridge Visitor Center is in the Buttrick 
Mansion. The ground floor houses visitor services, orientation, and exhibits; the remainder 
of the building is used for park headquarters. The Battle Road Visitor Center, one of the 
few new facilities added to the park by the National Park Service, offers exhibits and 
audiovisual presentations. A third orientation facility is located in the Wayside Barn, which 
houses an audiovisual presentation and serves as a staging area for tours of the house. 
Only the North Bridge Visitor Center is open year-round. 

In addition to the staffed visitor centers, visitors receive interpretation by way of scheduled 
talks at The North Bridge, tours of The Wayside, and walks along The Battle Road between 
the Ephraim Hartwell Tavern and the William Smith House. As in most parks, school groups 
are common during the spring and fall, and the park staff offer historical and environmental 
programs for them. The National Park Service is currently preparing a number of new 
outdoor wayside exhibits to provide park orientation and site-specific interpretation of The 
Battle Road and The North Bridge units. Indoor exhibits at the two visitor centers are also 
being redesigned. Publications relevant to park themes are sold by the Eastern National 
Park and Monument Association at both visitor centers and the Wayside Barn contact 
station. 

The present vehicular visitor carrying capacity at the park was determined by calculating 
the estimated peak number of visitors who would be in the park at one time if all existing 
parking areas and pulloff areas were occupied (see appendix D). An estimated 1,700 
visitors could be accommodated in the present automobile and bus parking spaces. This 
volume of visitors would, however, be taxing on certain park resources and present level 
interpretive staffing. 



22 




PARK 



NO SCALE NORTH 



FLOODPLAINS 
MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 
406 I 20034 
DSC APRIL 88 



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CONCORD TURNPIKE^ ^ 





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RIVERS, STREAMS, 
PONDS, RESERVOIRS 



100 YEAR FLOODPLAIN 
500 YEAR FLOODPLAIN 



NO SCALE NORTH 



FLOODPLAINS 
MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 




PARK 



NO SCALE NORTH 



WETLANDS 
MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

406I2 0033A 

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WETLANDS 
MINUTE MAN 




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1800 FEET 



VEGETATIVE COVER 

COMPARISON OF HISTORIC & PRESENT 

MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

406 I 2001 9A 



DSCl MARCH 88 




PARK 

CURRENTLY OPEN - OPEN IN 1775 
CURRENTLY FOREST - OPEN IN 1775 
CURRENTLY FOREST - FOREST IN 1775 
CURRENTLY OPEN - ORCHARD IN 1775 
CURRENTLY FOREST - ORCHARD IN 1775 
INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE OF 1775 VEGETATION 



VEGETATIVE COVER 

COMPARISON OF HISTORIC & PRESENT 

MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 



900 1800 FEET 



Q. 

LU 

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I- 



INTRODUCTION 



This General Management Plan will provide direction for management as well as ensure 
that the historical events and ideals that Minute Man National Historical Park commemorates 
are properly conveyed to the American public. It will help define a park identity long 
missing, thereby providing management with the means to accommodate changing needs 
while providing the public a clearly recognizable national park area. By approximating the 
cultural environment that existed in 1775 and protecting its associated historic resources, 
the National Park Service will assist visitors in understanding the social and political 
thoughts and events that led colonial Americans to overcome tyranny, culminating in the 
birth of American independence. The park will thus convey a sense of words and deeds 
that directed the movement against unjust conditions in pre-Revolutionary War America. The 
events commemorated new horizons in democratic experimentation and citizen responsibility 
that continue today, and serve as an inspiration to people throughout the world striving for 
freedom. 

Minute Man National Historical Park was established by Congress in Public Law 86-321 on 
September 21, 1959, "to preserve for the benefit of the American people certain historic 
structures and properties of outstanding national significance associated with the opening 
of The War of the American Revolution, . . ." including "... a number of historic properties, 
buildings, sites, and objects in Boston, Massachusetts, and the vicinity thereof, including the 
road and roadsites between Lexington and Concord, are intimately connected with the 
events that opened the war, and consequently, merit preservation and interpretation in the 
public interest as prime examples of the Nation's historical heritage." 

Based on this congressional intent, NPS "Management Policies," review by local and state 
officials, and substantial public input, this General Management Plan proposes a park that 
emphasizes the area's 1775 character. The park would, wherever possible, restore the 
cultural landscape to 1775 and provide visitors with an opportunity to walk on trails along 
The Battle Road and through the surrounding fields. They would be better able to 
appreciate the events that led to the Revolutionary War and, specifically, the context in 
which the battle of April 19, 1775, occurred. Although an exact re-creation of the 1775 
scene is no longer feasible, it will be possible to represent and interpret the characteristics 
of this period through the actions described in the plan. 

The plan proposes to separate the visitors' experience of the park from modern 
development, particularly traffic, which currently disrupts their enjoyment and understanding 
of the park; to preserve historic buildings; to remove or screen modern visual intrusions; 
and to improve the signs and exhibits for visitor information and orientation. 

The key to understanding this plan is that Minute Man National Historical Park is comprised 
of three parts or units: The Battle Road, The Wayside, and The North Bridge. The Battle 
Road and North Bridge units present the events related to the beginning of the American 
Revolutionary War, while the Wayside Unit focuses on the unique literary history of 
Concord. This plan deals primarily with the actions in the Battle Road and North Bridge 
units required to meet the intent of PL 86-321. 



31 



MANAGEMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 



The management goals and objectives for Minute Man National Historical Park are as 
follows: 

• Protect all cultural resources associated with the park, including the historic Battle 
Road, historic structures, historic landscape setting, and archeological resources. 

• Reduce adverse effects of increasing traffic on The Battle Road, the historic scene, 
and the visitor experience, through coordinated planning efforts with the state, towns, 
and regional traffic management groups. 

• Protect, rehabilitate, and selectively preserve 18th- and 19th-century buildings for 
interpretation, visitor use, and adaptive use for park purposes. 

• Protect and restore the historic scene of April 19, 1775, or the landscape and 
associated cultural resources in selected areas. Develop a landscape management 
plan to establish priorities for restoration, screening of modern intrusions, and 
agricultural leasing, and address long-term maintenance requirements. 

• Continue research on archeology, historic structures, and historic agricultural practices 
as well as landscape management techniques to develop information needed to protect 
the resources and to promote the understanding and appreciation of the environment 
and events of April 19, 1775. 

• Provide for use and enjoyment of the park and for improved interpretation of resources 
by developing interpretive facilities and visitor services compatible with the park's 
historic and natural resources. 

• Focus interpretive efforts and development on locations within the park where important 
tactical events occurred, including (1) The North Bridge, (2) the routes of the 
Americans, and (3) important sites along The Battle Road, while recognizing that the 
battle took place along the entire 16-mile length of The Battle Road. 

• Interpret resources that contribute to an understanding of the events of April 19, 1775, 
and an appreciation for the social, economic, and political environment at that time, 
including aspects of 18th-century agriculture, structures, and the social environment 
along The Battle Road. 

• Restore portions of the historic alignment of The Battle Road, including a small 
segment at Meriam's Corner and some larger segments between the Bloody Angles 
and Fiske Hill. 

• Consolidate the historic scene and preserve resources by rehabilitation and 
maintenance of structures and land, by reduction of rights-of-way across The Battle 
Road, by burial or relocation of utilities, by acquisition of key portions of the historic 
scene, and by restoration of sections of The Battle Road where feasible. 

• Provide for the separation of pedestrian and vehicular use, where possible, and create 
additional visitor use opportunities. Develop an interconnected pedestrian trail system 
the full length of the Battle Road unit for improvement of visitor safety and access to 
areas of historical interest. Develop the continuous trail in stages, beginning with 
sections where opportunity permits. 

32 



Improve access to park resources. Provide for improved circulation at The North 
Bridge parking areas and additional parking at the Battle Road Unit in response to 
visitor needs and to offer a variety of options to experience historic resources. Improve 
directional signs and wayside exhibits for visitor orientation and information. 

Protect the scene of the fighting on April 19, 1775, by acquiring properties 
recommended for acquisition in the "Land Protection" section of the plan through an 
opportunity-purchase basis, subject to the availability of funds; that is, when owners 
offer the property and funds are available. No residences will be acquired through 
"eminent domain." 

Continue cooperative efforts with Concord, Lincoln, and Lexington; regional planning 
groups; and local and national organizations toward preserving and interpreting historic 
events and resources, including planning efforts affecting the three park units. 

Preserve The Wayside and interpret the lives of the authors who lived there as well 
as the mid-1 9th-century literary scene in Concord. 



33 



THE BATTLE ROAD UNIT 



The Battle Road is a long road, leading even to the present day: and beyond. Its first five 
miles are more worth preserving than any other five miles of country road in the United 
States. 

Thomas Boylston Adams 

OVERALL CONCEPT 

The Battle Road is the primary cultural resource at Minute Man National Historical Park. 
Called the Concord Road in the 18th century, it linked Concord, the first inland settlement 
in Massachusetts, with Cambridge, Boston, and the sea. Also important is the network of 
other roads that joined it, since minute and militia companies from outlying towns entered 
the action at these points along the route. While the stone walls, landscape features, and 
historic buildings help to improve the understanding of the scene of the April 19, 1775, 
fighting, the road itself will always remain the central element. 

The General Management Plan presents a management strategy that restores portions of 
The Battle Road to its approximate historic unpaved surface, preserves the historic 
buildings, restores the historic landscape character, and improves the interpretive potential 
of the park. It also emphasizes protection of the historic setting, and a cooperative agenda 
for traffic management. It is not the intent of this plan to increase visitation to the Battle 
Road Unit but to provide adequate opportunities for access and interpretation. 

The visitor experience will emphasize walking the restored sections of The Battle Road and 
the adjacent trail system. Improved interpretation will help visitors visualize the events of 
April 19, 1775, by focusing on the start of the running battle, the area of most intense 
fighting, the 1775 socioeconomic environment, well-known events and historic resources, 
restored portions of The Battle Road and the historic setting, and the context of events prior 
to and following the battle. 

UNITWIDE 

Selective restoration of the 18th-century environment will provide a flavor of the physical 
conditions on April 19, 1775, without requiring the detailed replication of the entire 
landscape. To complement the General Management Plan, the National Park Service will 
develop a plan to guide landscape management, including selective clearing and restoring 
representative orchards, gardens, tilled fields, meadows, pasture, stone walls, and 
woodlands. Vegetative screening of visual intrusions and relocating utilities underground 
will also be addressed. 

The remaining historic open fields will continue to be maintained by leasing them whenever 
possible for haying or pasture, or, barring that, through a program of controlled burning. As 
it becomes possible to do so, intrusions such as signs, utility poles, houses, and other 
modern structures will be removed. 

An approximation of the historic landscape character will be directed towards creating visitor 
understanding of the 1775 environment and will include, where practicable, restoration of 
the basic land use and cover conditions present at the time of the battle. This includes 
open fields, orchards, and natural woodlands (see Landscape Management map). Specific 



34 




LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT 
k MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 



NORTH 



900 



1800 FEET 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

406 1 20035 



DSC I AUG 89 




PARK 



ADJACENT LAND USE 

11(1111 CONSERVATION LAND 
''////////////, HIGH INTENSITY USE 
''////////////, MODERATE INTENSITY USE 



LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT 



TILLED FIELD 
FOREST 
ORCHARD 
STONE WALL 
OPEN FIELD 



FENCE 



LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT 



MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 



900 1800 FEET 



UNITED STATES 



• 

1 
\ 


ffi 


1 \ 


ill 






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l 9 y 


\\ 




W 




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128J 



RESTORE BATTLE ROAD 



OCCASIONALLY 
CLOSE OLD 
ASSACHUSETTS 
AVENUE 




FISKE HILL THROUGH 
NELSON ROAD 



NT 



NORTH 



900 1800 FEET 



BATTLE ROAD UNIT 
PLAN 

MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

406 I 20042 
DSC I AUG 89 



RESTORE BATTLE ROAD 



OCCASIONALLY 
*\ CLOSE OLD 
^MASSACHUSETTS 




COOPERATIVE ACTIONS 

Work to close Airport Road (U.S. Air Force) 



Work to close Old Massachusetts Avenue 
(Town of Lexington) 



Work to realign intersection of Brooks Road 
Route 2A to the south (Town of Lincoln) 



Work to realign intersection to the south of 
the bluff (Town of Lexington) 



SHADYSIDE LANE THROUGH 
MERIAM'S CORNER 



OLD BEDFORD ROAD VIRGINIA ROAD THROUGH NELSON ROAD TO 

TO SHADYSIDE LANE OLD BEDFORD ROAD VIRGINIA ROAD 



FISKE HILL THROUGH 
NELSON ROAD 



PARK 

— EXISTING VISITOR ROUTE 
Q PARKING 

* WAYSIDE EXHIBIT 



* 



TRAIL 

VISITOR ORIENTATION POINT 



BATTLE ROAD UNIT 

PLAN 

MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

406 1 20042 

DSC I AUG 09 



crops, trees, or ecological units will as a general rule not be restored because specific 
information of that level of detail is missing for many areas of the park, and overly 
restrictive requirements will reduce the potential for historic leasing and greatly increase 
maintenance costs. 

The restoration of the historical character will require adjustments in the landscape 
management plan, especially at the park boundaries where it will be necessary to screen 
modern intrusions. The amount of screening actually required will depend on the type of 
land use adjacent to or visible from the park. Some park lands in the Battle Road Unit 
are adjacent to town conservation lands, and unless specific views interfere with the 
historical character, no vegetative screening should be undertaken. Likewise, low density 
residential development typically will require a moderate amount of screening, while high 
density residential and commercial development will require heavy screening. Plant materials 
for this purpose will include coniferous as well as deciduous trees to provide year-round 
screening. 

The preservation treatments and adaptive uses of historic structures and archeological 
resources are shown in table 2. While the exteriors of some structures key to the 
interpretive story will be completely restored, most will be rehabilitated for adaptive uses. 
The degree of restoration will be subject to available information. All work on historic 
structures will be preceded by the requisite historical, architectural, engineering, and 
archeological studies in accordance with NPS management, policies, and guidelines. 

Ongoing parkwide archeological survey work as rehabilitation and development work 
proceeds will continue to locate, protect, and identify cultural resources in the park. Where 
possible, it will also precisely locate The Battle Road in those areas of the park where its 
historic alignment and configuration have not yet been determined. In addition, past 
documentary and archeological research will be synthesized and supplemented as 
necessary to ensure that adequate data are available to guide restoration and rehabilitation 
treatments proposed for historic structures, which are absolutely essential for interpretation 
of the historic scene. If adequate information is not available for restoration or rehabilitation 
of extant structures, alternative treatments will be determined. Unfortunately, it will not be 
possible to fully restore all structures present in 1775 because many period structures have 
been dramatically modified over the past 200 years, and none of the associated facilities 
(barns, outbuildings, wells, privies, or gardens) have survived, although archeological 
evidence might still exist. 

All pre-1920 structures will be retained. Because a number of 18th-century structures have 
been lost, the 19th-century buildings will help restore a sense of balance between structures 
and open fields that was present at the time of the battle. Approximately 15 modern 
(post-1920) structures will be removed after they come under NPS administration and when 
funds are available. It may be in the best interest of the federal government to allow for 
residential and agricultural use of certain lands within the boundaries of the park because 
funds to maintain or remove existing structures are currently limited. 



39 



Table 2: Treatments for Cultural Resources - Battle Road Unit 



Resource 
(Structures) 


Date of 
Construction 


Present Use 


Treatment 


Future Use 


Jacob Whittemore 
House 


Prior to 1774 


Residence 


Restore exterior to 
1775 appearance 


Interpret 


John Nelson House 
and Barn 


1810 


Residence 


Restore exterior to 
19th century; adapt 
interior for modern 
purposes 


Residence 


William Smith 
House 


Post-1693; restored 
by NPS 1985 


Park interpreted 
site 


Preserve 


Interpret 


Ephraim Hartwell 
Tavern 


Earliest structure 
built 1732; restored 
by NPS 1983 


Park interpreted 
site 


Maintain 1775 
element; 

differentiate post- 
1775 elements 


Interpret 


McHugh Bam 


Foundation, 1820; 
structure, 1939 


Park administration 


Preserve 


Interpretive support 
unit 


Joshua Brooks 
House 


1781 


Residence 


Restore exterior to 
1775 for inter- 
pretation; adapt 
interior for modern 
purposes 


Residence 


Job Brooks House 


ca. 1760 


Storage 


Restore exterior to 
1775 for inter- 
pretation; adapt 
interior for modern 
purposes 


Interpret 


Samuel Brooks 
House 


1733 


Residence 


Restore exterior to 
1775 for inter- 
pretation; adapt 
interior for modern 
purposes 


Residence 


Noah Brooks 
Tavern and Rogers 
Barn 


1810 


Residence/admini- 
stration 


Restore exterior to 
1810 


Administration/ 
residence 


Olive Stow House 


1760 


Residence 


Restore exterior to 
1775 for inter- 
pretation; adapt 
interior for modern 
purposes 


Residence 


Farwell Jones 
House 


Pre-1775 


Residence 


Restore exterior to 
1775 for inter- 
pretation; adapt 
interior for modern 
purposes 


Residence 


George Minot 
House 


1865 


Residence 


Restore exterior 
and adapt interior 
for modern 
purposes 


Residence 


East Quarter 
Schoolhouse 


1854 


Residence 


Restore exterior 
and adapt interior 


Visitor contact 
station 


John Meriam 
House 


ca. 1680 


Residence 


Restore exterior for 
interpretation; adapt 
interior for modern 
use 


Administration 


Daniel Taylor 
House 


ca. 1810 


Residence 


Preserve 


Residence 



40 



Table 2 (cont.) 



Resource 
(Structures) 



Date of 
Construction 



Present Use 



Treatment 



Future Use 



Archeologlcal Resources 

The Battle Road 

Ebenezer Fiske 
Site 

David Fiske Site 

Jonas Bateman 
Site 

Tabitha Nelson Site 

Thomas Nelson, Jr. 
Site 

Josiah Nelson Site 

Sites 22 and 23 

Jacob Foster Site 

Ebenezer Lameson 
Site 

Joseph Mason Site 

Schoolhouse A 

Prehistoric Site 
#19-MD-119 

Deacon Joshua 
Brooks Tannery 
and Slaughterhouse 
Site 

Alfred Brooks Site 

Thomas Brooks 
Site 

Abel Brooks Site 

Eliphelet Fox Site 

George Minot Site 

Prehistoric Site 
#19-MD-89 

Blacksmith Shop B 

Prehistoric Site 
#19-MD-487 

Prehistoric Site 
#19-MD-88 

Bull Tavern 

Joshua Brooks Site 



Locate 


Interpret 


Protect 


Interpret 


Excavate for data 


Interpret 


Locate 


Interpret 


Locate 


Interpret 


Protect 


Interpret 


Protect 


Interpret 


Excavate for data 


Interpret 


Locate 


Interpret 


Locate 


Interpret 


Protect 


Interpret 


Locate 


Interpret 


Protect 


Resource data 
base 



Protect 

Locate 
Locate 

Locate 
Protect 
Protect 
Protect 

Locate 
Protect 

Protect 

Locate 
Locate 



nterpret 

nterpret 
nterpret 

nterpret 

nterpret 

nterpret 

Resource data 
base 

Interpret 

Resource data 
base 

Resource data 
base 

Interpret 

Interpret 



41 



Current collection storage facilities are inadequate both environmentally and in size. A 
collections management plan will be undertaken to determine what site or sites would be 
appropriate to house the historic collections. 

The National Park Service will continue to work with state, regional, and local offices to 
decrease the flow of traffic on Route 2A through improvements to other road corridors. The 
Park Service will seek improved traffic management for visitor safety and to lessen 
intrusions on interpretation. While the Park Service will cooperate with state and local 
agencies and groups for study of traffic issues, it will oppose the widening of Route 2A or 
Lexington Road beyond present rights-of-way, if proposed, and will support alternatives 
that would remove traffic from The Battle Road. Recommendations would be made so that 
when widening of Route 2A and other significant proposals are suggested in the future due 
to critical traffic congestion, alternatives that best meet needs for resource protection and 
interpretive opportunities are considered. 

Directional signing to and throughout the park will be improved, especially in the Fiske Hill 
area where westbound visitors first encounter the park. This action will better enable visitors 
to experience park resources and activities. The park staff is working with the Concord 
Historical Collaborative to develop a coordinated, consistent approach to the use and design 
of directional signing. This effort will be expanded to include the other towns and the state. 

A wayside exhibit plan has been developed by the National Park Service and calls for 20 
exhibits along The Battle Road that will provide orientation and interpretation of the area. 
In addition, orientation and interpretive media are being developed for use at the visitor 
centers. The park and Harpers Ferry Center staff are currently preparing an interpretive 
prospectus for the park that will define new interpretive signs, films, exhibits, etc. 

Hiking and biking trails will be established to parallel the Battle Road. As opportunities 
arise, these trails may link to regional hiking and biking trail networks. The National Park 
Service will also continue to coordinate ongoing efforts with other agencies concerned with 
developing areawide or regionwide recreational or greenbelt systems, including bicycle paths 
and the Bay Circuit greenbelt. Cooperative interpretive programs will be explored with the 
Town of Lexington and other towns along The Battle Road from Concord to Boston. 

Parking lots added to primary resource areas will be carefully sited behind stone walls or 
vegetation in previously developed areas. 

Staffing level increases are necessary to fulfill existing needs for park interpretation and 
maintenance, as well as to provide for planned actions. A staffing plan will be prepared to 
address these management needs. 

Fiske Hill through Nelson Road 

The National Park Service will work with the Town of Lexington to coordinate visitor access, 
interpretation, signs, and information about the events of April 19, 1775, between the park 
and Lexington attractions. 

Development in this heavily impacted area will be screened, including commercial and 
institutional facilities, houses, Air Force Base Gate 2, and the Boston Edison Company 
substation and power lines, to remove modern features from view of park visitors, as 
feasible. 



42 



The National Park Service will work with the Town of Lexington to find options to solve 
visitor, local, and commuter traffic conflicts on Old Massachusetts Avenue to allow for 
achievement of the goal of eventual closure. This could include occasional and/or partial 
closure until such time as full closure is possible. The Battle Road traces, known as the 
1907 Old Massachusetts Avenue layout, would be acquired from the state, or a cooperative 
agreement concerning interpretation of the historic events that occurred on them would be 
developed. 

The National Park Service will work with the Town of Lexington and Hayward Pond 
Neighborhood Association to locate an alternative access to the neighborhood that allows 
for closure of Bonair Avenue and a segment of Fairview Avenue. 

The National Park Service will establish a program with the U.S. Air Force for limited 
closure of Gate 2 during noncommuter hours to allow for regular interpretive walks that 
cross Airport Road. The redesign of the entrance to the visitor center parking lot to improve 
safety and access to the park and Gate 2, as well as remove the modern road closely 
paralleling The Battle Road, will be studied in the event that the goal of complete closure 
of Airport Road cannot be achieved. 

The National Park Service will work with the Air Force, the state, and local residents to 
eliminate the need for Airport Road and support an alternate connection from Route 128 
to Hanscom Field that could allow for this. Continued access to residences on Airport Road 
would be necessary until such time as the two properties on the south side could be 
acquired on an opportunity-purchase basis when funds are available, and when an alternate 
access can be provided to the two properties on the north side of the road through a 
continued cooperative effort with these property owners. The National Park Service will also 
work with the state to acquire the excess right-of-way land near the Bluff, including the 
unused portion of Marrett Street. 

The small wayside pull off for the Ebenezer Fiske House site will be retained and upgraded. 
This pull off is to facilitate reading of an interpretive plaque that describes the fighting of 
April 19, 1775, as it carried over into Boston. 

The National Park Service will cooperate with the Air Force on land protection measures, 
including the transfer of two small parcels of land near base housing with two adjacent 
NPS tracts; will seek donation of the portion of Patterson Road adjacent to The Battle 
Road and the Thomas Nelson, Sr. house site; and will continue efforts to stabilize the 
eroded slope north of the Paul Revere Capture plaque. 

The National Park Service will support and work for realignment of the dangerous 
intersection at the Bluff to the south to consolidate and protect park resources, improve 
interpretation, and seek minimization of effects on wetlands. The Fiske Hill parking will be 
relocated to the visitor center parking lot if safety in walking between these two areas can 
be ensured. These actions will build on currently planned Marrett Street- Massachusetts 
Avenue intersection traffic safety improvements. 

The National Park Service will work with state and local entities to improve visitor safety 
and consolidate resources between the Capture site and Nelson Road area and at the Bluff. 
The Park Service will also work with the Town of Lincoln to relocate the transfer station 
road, discontinuing access across park land when contractual agreements expire. 

The Jacob Whittemore House and site will be maintained and interpreted; the Marrett Street 
portion of The Battle Road will be restored and the events of April 19, 1775, will be 



43 



interpreted; modern intrusions will be screened; and selective restoration of the 1775 
landscape, including the Whittemore House and the Bluff area, will be undertaken. 

The exterior of the John Nelson House and Barn will be restored and the interior will be 
rehabilitated for administrative purposes. 

The existing Battle Road Visitor Center will be retained. 

Area resources and restored segments of The Battle Road will be connected by a trail, 
which will link to the continuous trail system. 

Important 1775 sites will be interpreted, including the approximate location of the Josiah and 
Thomas Nelson home sites, Whittemore "blacksmith" shop, Bull Tavern, Ebenezer Fiske 
House foundation and British soldier burial sites, and the Bluff, Fiske Hill, and Minute Man 
boulder. 



Nelson Road to Virginia Road 

An interpretive loop trail linking resources on the Old Bedford Road (Lincoln) and Virginia 
Road portions of The Battle Road with east and west segments of the unit's trail system 
will be developed. 

Traffic and visual impacts of Hanscom Drive and other modern development between 
Virginia Road and the Paul Revere capture marker will be reduced; vegetative screening 
will be installed, and limited landscape restoration will be undertaken. 

The approximate location of the capture of Paul Revere will be interpreted. 

Virginia Road through Old Bedford Road 

A small wayside pull off will be provided at the Bloody Angles for viewing of an interpretive 
plaque and the landscape where the heaviest fighting within the park occurred. 

In order to preserve the historic scene, three excess state-owned lots will be acquired when 
available for donation, and one residential property will be acquired should the owner wish 
to sell and funds are available. The access to two residences south of Route 2A will be 
acquired when an alternate access can be provided. 

The 1775 structures along Virginia Road will be maintained and interpreted, including the 
restored Ephraim Hartwell Tavern, Samuel Hartwell House foundation, and the William Smith 
House. Archeological sites such as the Mason site will be interpreted. The McHugh Barn 
will be preserved to provide for additional interpretive support space. 

A centralized parking lot for 20 cars and 2 buses will be established in a previously 
developed area on Bedford Lane to provide parking for visitors to the Bloody Angles area 
resources. The National Park Service will work to close Old Bedford and Virginia roads to 
through-traffic, restore The Battle Road when residential access is no longer needed, and 
provide access to this area by way of Bedford Lane (with expansion potential for possible 
future demand). 



44 



Selected areas will be restored to the 1775 landscape appearance of the Bloody Angles 
scene. This will include restoration of The Battle Road from Old Bedford Road through 
Virginia Road, delineation of pastures and orchards, and reconstruction of stone walls. 

Old Bedford Road to Shadyside Lane 

A cooperative agreement will be developed with MASSPORT to restrict development in the 
Bedford Levels area to preserve the historic scene and to allow for provision of a trail. 

A small, unpaved parking lot for 5-10 cars and a wayside exhibit will be provided on the 
north side of Route 2A to allow for interpretation of the following Hardy's Hill area features: 
Hardy's Hill, Brooks Road, the restored exteriors of the Job, Samuel, and Joshua Brooks' 
residences and Noah Brooks' Tavern, Brooks' Tannery site at Elm Brook, and a view of 
the lowland area crossed by the militia. 

The National Park Service supports the relocation of the Brooks Road intersection, which 
would allow for improved interpretation of the location where militia from communities to 
the south joined in the fighting, and would also improve safety for local residents and 
possibly deter through-traffic. 

The arrival of militia companies from the south at Hardy's Hill will be interpreted, and 
selective landscape restoration will be undertaken. 

Shadyside Lane through Meriam's Corner 

Modern houses north of Lexington Road will be screened with vegetation to protect the 
scene where 18th-century Americans traveled. Should owners wish to sell and funds are 
available, the acquisition of several undeveloped properties and nine properties with houses 
on Shadyside Lane and Manuel Drive should be undertaken. These houses are within the 
historic scene, and the long-term goal is to consolidate resources and protect the historic 
scene. 

The exterior of the Farwell Jones and Olive Stow residences will be restored to their 1 775 
appearance. Cottage industries and farming will be interpreted in addition to the fighting to 
inform visitors of the socioeconomic conditions at the time of the battle. The exterior of the 
19th-century George Minot House will be restored and the site interpreted. The interior of 
these houses will be used for administrative purposes. A small, unpaved parking lot will 
be provided adjacent to one of these residences for long-term use to alleviate pressure on 
the centralized Meriam's Corner lot. 

Due to the incompatible use and need for park improvement, the lease for the only 
commercial property remaining in the park will not be renewed upon expiration. 

A centralized parking lot for 20 cars and 2 buses will be established and screened in a 
previously developed area, the Willow Pond Restaurant site, for access to Meriam's Corner 
(with expansion potential for possible future demand). 

A wayside pull off for three cars will be installed on the south side of Lexington Road for 
interpretation of Meriam's Corner. 

A trail will be provided on the north to interpret the Americans' route across the fields from 
the fighting at Meriam's Corner to the Bloody Angles where the most intensive fighting 

45 



occurred within the park. (It would need to cross Lexington Road in areas where reserved 
occupancies do not permit right-of-way across land or where lands significant to the 
crossing of the Americans have not been acquired.) 

Stone walls will be rebuilt at the intersection of Old Bedford and Lexington roads to improve 
visitor safety when experiencing Meriam's Corner. 

A segment of The Battle Road in front of the Meriam House (believed to be in the front 
yard) will be located and restored when the site becomes accessible. In addition, a crossing 
of Mill Brook will be provided at the historic location to improve interpretation of the 
beginning of the running battle, which continued from this area all the way to Boston. 

The exterior of the John Meriam House and surrounding landscape on NPS property will 
be restored for interpretation. The exterior of the East Quarter Schoolhouse will be restored 
for orientation and interpretive purposes. 



46 



THE NORTH BRIDGE UNIT 



The North Bridge Unit is a site of such major importance to the April 19, 1775, story that 
the National Park Service must provide the opportunity for all visitors to view it. The 
National Park Service will manage the length of visitor stay to reduce overcrowding, rather 
than deny access because parking may not be available. This approach will include 
shortening the duration and intervals between interpretive programs for visitors to more 
efficiently use available parking. Special interpretive programs at The North Bridge and the 
North Bridge Visitor Center will be reduced or eliminated. 

Extant structures and landscape features have undergone many changes since 1775, and 
the site has assumed a commemorative character of significance in itself. The plan calls 
for retention of this commemorative character. The area retains little of its 1775 appearance; 
rather, it possesses a number of monuments and other features that create an atmosphere 
of commemoration, including (1) the 1836 Battle Monument, (2) The North Bridge, the 
Minute Man Statue, British soldiers' grave, and several memorial plantings. 

Orientation and directional signs will bo- improved in coordination with the Concord Historical 
Collaborative. New interpretive wayside plaques will be installed as called for in the Wayside 
Exhibit Plan. 

The parking count study begun in 1988 to obtain required data on parking lot use and 
duration of stay will be continued (based on the results of the study, maximize use of 
existing parking lots by minor reconfigurations). Additional staff parking at the maintenance 
facility will be provided (paved lot capacity to be 20 spaces). The unpaved overflow parking 
lot in Sargent Field south of The Old Manse will be retained, and an analysis of reseeding 
and nonvisible turf stabilizers to correct rutting and loss of grass cover will be undertaken. 

Monitoring vehicle speed on Monument and Liberty streets near parking lots by the Town 
of Concord Police will be encouraged to reduce public safety problems. Management/design 
options to reduce hazards will be analyzed. 

Buses will be directed (in cooperation with the state and town) between the Monument 
Street parking area and the visitor center by way of Lowell Road due to the new load limit 
placed by the state on the Flint Bridge. Because of this change, bus circulation in parking 
lots will be examined. 

The Muster Field and the John Buttrick House will be integrated into the interpretive story 
through special group tours and events occurring during nonpeak hours. Groups will be 
accompanied to ensure safety in crossing Liberty Street. A trail linking these resources will 
be developed. 

A walking trail will be developed in cooperation with the town and historic groups to link the 
town center with the North Bridge Unit to further encourage pedestrian access. 

A landing for canoes will be provided 50 to 150 feet upriver from The North Bridge for 
viewing the bridge while not interrupting the interpretive experience. Vegetation on the 
riverbank adjacent to the bridge will be restored where erosion is evident, and landing here 
by canoeists will be discouraged. 

The National Park Service will continue to cooperate with the Town of Concord on joint 
management of The North Bridge resources, and will continue to work with the Trustees 
of Reservations to coordinate activities with The Old Manse. 

47 



In addition, the National Park Service will continue to work with other organizations in the 
area, such as the Concord Historical Collaborative, to encourage the development of off- 
site parking, alternative transportation systems, and the development of walking and hiking 
trails to reduce the number of cars coming to The North Bridge. 

The acquisition of land or property will not be required. The National Park Service will rely 
on the town's historic district zoning to achieve park resource protection. 

Table 3 indicates the proposed treatments for cultural resources in the North Bridge Unit. 



Table 3: Treatments for Cultural Resources - North Bridge Unit 



Resource 
(Structures) 



Elisha Jones House 
and Barn 

John Buttrick House 



Buttrick Mansion 



Buttrick Carriage 
House 

Buttrick Caretaker's 
House 



Date of 
Construction 



Early 18th century 

1715 

1911 

1911 

1911 



Present Use 



Residence 



Residence and 
school programs 

Administration/ 
visitor center 



Storage 



Residence 



Treatment 

Preservation 
Preservation 
Preservation 
Preservation 
Preservation 



Future Use 

Residence 



Administration/ 
residence 

Visitor center/ 
administration 

Storage/ 
administration 

Residence 



Arc heo logical Resources 
John Flint Site 
Muster Field 
Prehistoric Site #19-MD-91 

Ephraim Buttrick Site 
Willard Buttrick Site 
Prehistoric Site #19-MD-90 

David Brown Site 

Roads west of The North Bridge 



Locate 


Interpret 


Protect 


Interpret 


Protect 


Resource data 
base 


Protect 


Interpret 


Locate 


Interpret 


Protect 


Resource data 
base 


Protect 


Interpret 


Locate 


Interpret 



48 



COOPERATIVE ACTIONS 

Work to develop a walking trail from North Bridge area 
to proposed town visitor center (Town of Concord) 

Work with town to improve traffic monitoring 
(Town of Concord) 

Work to improve signs as coordinated with Concord 
Historical Collaborative (Town of Concord) 




MINOR IMPROVEMENTS TO 
EXISTING PARKING AREAS 



ELISHA JONES HOUSE 



NORTH BRIDGE UNIT 
PLAN 

MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 
4061 20041 
DSC I AUG 89 



PROVIDE STAFF PARKING 
(LIMITED TO 20 VEHICLESI 




COOPERATIVE ACTIONS 

Work to develop a walking trail Irom North Bridge ; 
to proposed town visilor center (Town ol Concord) 

ith town to improve traffic monitorino 



as coordinated with Conco 
(Town of Concordi 



MINOR IMPROVEMENTS TO 
EXISTING PARKING AREAS 



ELISHA JONES HOUSE 



200 400 600 FEET 



NORTH BRIDGE UNIT 
PLAN 

MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



THE WAYSIDE UNIT 



The Wayside, an 18th-century structure that was enlarged substantially in later years, has 
been the home of three families of authors - Louisa May and her father Bronson Alcott, 
Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Harriet M. Lothrop, who wrote under the pen name Margaret 
Sidney. The Wayside plays an important role in the story of Concord's 19th-century literary 
achievements, and has been restored to its appearance at the time of the death of Harriet 
M. Lothrop. Five other historic houses related to the literary story in Concord are maintained 
and interpreted by private historical organizations. 

Although restored in the early 1970s, The Wayside has subsequently undergone some 
structural deterioration. Also, water damage and excessive wear to elements of the historic 
fabric are evident, and the structure has inadequate mechanical systems. Specific concerns 
include instability of the central chimney stack, deteriorated plaster in the ceiling, 
deteriorated finishes on the woodwork, unsafe electrical wiring, and the absence of year- 
round humidity controls. 

The Wayside and Wayside Barn will undergo complete restoration, including assessment 
and repair of structural problems, preservation of historic fabric, and improvement of the 
environmental control systems. The park will also implement recommendations contained 
in the Historic Furnishings Report (NPS 1983) and the Historic Grounds Report (1970). 



51 



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54 



LAND PROTECTION 



INTRODUCTION 

The purpose of land protection planning for Minute Man National Historical Park is to 
identify the recommended methods of protection for historic resources and the historic 
scene. Land protection issues are periodically reviewed for each unit of the national park 
system containing nonfederal lands or for which boundary recommendations have been 
made. Land protection planning and land acquisition are subject to applicable legislation, 
congressional guidelines, executive orders, and departmental and NPS policies and 
guidelines. This section describes the land protection strategies to protect lands within and 
adjacent to Minute Man National Historical Park. 

In May 1982, the Department of the Interior issued a policy statement (47 FR 19784) to 
guide use of the federal portion of the Land and Water Conservation Fund. The policy 
requires that, in carrying out its responsibility for land protection in federally administered 
areas, each agency using the fund will take the following steps: 

Identify what land or interests in land needs to be in federal ownership to achieve 
management unit purposes consistent with public objectives in the unit. 

Use to the maximum extent practicable, cost-effective alternatives to direct federal 
purchase of private lands and, when acquisition is necessary, acquire or retain only 
the minimum interests necessary to meet management objectives. 

Cooperate with landowners, other federal agencies, state and local governments, and 
the private sector to manage lands for public use or protect them for resource 
conservation. 

Formulate, or revise as necessary, plans for land acquisition and resource use or 
protection to ensure that sociocultural impacts are considered and that the most 
outstanding areas are adequately protected and managed. 

Methods of land protection are identified that will provide for the long-term protection of 
significant historic resources, for interpretation and use by visitors, and allow for 
consolidation of park resources. The minimum interests in land are recommended to 
achieve these stated purposes, and priorities for acquisition of interests in land are 
described. 

A property's inclusion in this "Land Protection" section does not constitute an offer to 
purchase interests in land, nor does it restrict or diminish the rights of the landowner in the 
use of the property. Any purchase of land or interests in land is subject to the availability 
of funds. 

Following approval of the General Management Plan, revisions or updates may be made 
to reflect changing conditions in and around the park. 

ISSUES AND OBJECTIVES 

The major issues are identification of the means necessary to provide sufficient resource 
protection and provide for public use, and to establish priorities for protection. At Minute 
Man National Historical Park, the intent is to protect the historic lands and scene within the 

55 



park from the effects of residential and commercial development, and to provide the 
necessary lands to implement actions contained in this plan. 

The plan addresses the intent of resource protection by examining historic resource 
protection, historic scene preservation and protection, consolidation of park lands by 
acquisition of driveways and roads, and other needs for the development of the park. 

Historic resource protection emphasizes resources directly or peripherally involved in the 
April 19, 1775, action. These resources are vital to fulfilling the mandate of the park's 
establishing legislation; thus, the emphasis of this plan is to ensure that the historic 
resources of Minute Man National Historical Park are adequately protected. 

The scope of the historic scene involved in the plan is not limited to the area within the 
200-yard range of an 18th-century musket, but also includes some of the rear fields that 
the minute men used for maneuvering. Scenery on April 19, 1775, would have consisted 
of home lots, fields, meadows, and pastures interspersed with orchards, woodlands, and an 
occasional marshy area. While they do not represent the historic configuration, these same 
elements, in different proportions, can be found in the park today. However, the proximity 
of modern subdivisions and other development has narrowed the area available for 
appropriate representation along much of The Battle Road to lands within the park and a 
few undeveloped adjacent parcels. These remnants of the rural colonial landscape are 
integral to restoration of the early American scene and critical to implementation of the plan. 

Just as the primary elements of the historic scene are integral to evocation of the colonial 
atmosphere, the historic setting is also important. It is visually important as a transition from 
the historic moment to the present day. Some of the historic scene and much of the 
viewshed lie outside the current national historical park, and federal purchase of interests 
in these lands requires congressional action to increase the legislated extent of the park. 
Without expanded authorization for federal investment, minor additions may be made 
through land exchange. 

Land protection also examines rights-of-way crossing park lands. The existence of public 
and private rights-of-way through Minute Man National Historical Park could prevent 
eventual achievement of the management goals and objectives of the plan. Route 2A poses 
the most obvious right-of-way conflict because it covers a large portion of the historic Battle 
Road. Old Massachusetts Avenue, Airport Road, Virginia Road, Old Bedford Road, and 
Lexington Road also overlay portions of the historic trace. Side roads and private drives 
accessing the modern roads that travel the proposed restored sections of The Battle Road 
will be examined for potential rerouting or cul-de-sacing. Some private homes have no other 
readily available access, and an alternate access will need to be acquired or developed. 

Currently, the park has an administrative boundary with an acreage ceiling of 750 acres, 
of which the park owns approximately 746 acres (see table 4). The National Park Service 
will seek authority to acquire an additional 250 acres of land to protect historic resources 
and to preserve open space as well as the historic setting. The National Park Service will 
seek to acquire these lands and interests in lands through an opportunity-purchase basis, 
subject to the availability of funds; that is, when owners offer the property and funds are 
available. No residences will be acquired through "eminent domain." 



56 



Table 4: Summary of Existing Land Protection 

Acreage 

NPS scenic easements 1.46 

NPS fee lands 740.71 

Lands protected through cooperative agreement 4.08 

Total acreage 746.25 

CURRENT LANDOWNERSHIP AND USES 

History and Current Status of Land Protection Actions 

Since the establishment of Minute Man National Historical Park in 1959, the prime 
management goal has been to protect and, where feasible, restore the historic 1775 scene 
along The Battle Road and to reduce the adverse effects of surrounding development. Land 
protection to accomplish these goals has taken a variety of forms. 

Most properties were purchased. Several tracts were donated to the national historical park 
from a variety of sources including the Town of Lincoln, the Lexington Historical Society, 
and the Minuteman Regional Vocational-Technical School District. The Department of 
Defense has transferred a parcel to the park. 

The park holds a scenic easement adjoining five tracts it owns on the northeast side of 
Marrett Street, near the Battle Road Visitor Center. This easement covers the back portion 
of several subdivision lots. 

Throughout the park, especially in the Old Bedford Road/Virginia Road section of Lincoln 
and along Lexington Road in Concord, a number of properties were purchased by the 
United States, allowing for retained use and occupancy rights for a specific term or for the 
life of the seller. These conditions allow the seller continued use through the duration of the 
contract, at the end of which time the Park Service holds the sole interest. During the 
contract period, these rights may be sold, rented, bequeathed, or otherwise assigned. 

Land Uses Surrounding the Park 

Minute Man National Historical Park is within the towns of Concord, Lincoln, and Lexington, 
each of which has a distinct character and a distinct set of concerns. Together they include 
some of the region's most significant historic and open space resources. As land 
management decisions within the park can affect the ambience of the neighboring towns, 
similarly, land use decisions made by the towns can affect the future of the park. A 
cooperative planning process between the park, the towns, and other major landowners, 
particularly Hanscom Air Force Base, Minuteman Tech, and MASSPORT is important in 
developing the best possible future for the park and neighboring lands and toward 
continuing the pattern of compatible land use. 



57 



Area land use near the park is undergoing increasing development pressure. With 
l-95/Route 128 nearby, access to major road arteries is excellent. Suburban office 
development and light industrial facilities are expanding the area employment base. 

Of specific concern to NPS management has been the growth of L.G. Hanscom Field, 
operated by the Massachusetts Port Authority. Since the major access to the field and to 
Hanscom Air Force Base is along a section of The Battle Road (2A), there is increasing 
pressure for additional highway capacity on The Battle Road. Already the intersection of 
Hanscom Drive and 2A has been upgraded and widened. A project for widening 2A to three 
lanes with signal control at the eastern entrance to the park is also being designed. 

Local governments are concerned about these roadway pressures and have organized a 
study effort called the Hanscom Area Traffic Study (HATS). In addition, each of the towns 
as well as MASSPORT and the Air Force, has been actively engaged in its own planning 
efforts regarding this area. 

Potential changes in the land use and policies of surrounding governments will affect park 
visitors. These also have a bearing on the type of park that Minute Man National Historical 
Park will become. 



Land Use Projections 

Valuable land and a continuing growth trend in the suburbs west of Boston are two major 
factors influencing development of land west of Route 128. The three towns in which Minute 
Man National Historical Park is located share considerable interest in the acquisition and 
preservation of open space; yet, each town must cope with its own decisions concerning 
development. 

Predictions indicate a continuing strong land market for both commercial and residential 
uses in the area. Thus, whatever development does occur, and its location, will be greatly 
affected by the zoning policies of each town. 

These projections have been considered during the analysis of park land protection needs 
and recommended actions. 



Compatible and Incompatible Land Uses 

Nonfederal lands in and surrounding the park have been evaluated by parcel as to existing 
land use compatibility with park purposes - resource protection, visitor use, and safety. 
Existing land use that perpetuates the historic scene of the area, or where modern use 
closely resembles use during the historic period are encouraged. Minute Man National 
Historical Park encompasses or abuts several privately owned parcels of land that are 
currently used compatibly but which could be subject to future incompatible development. 

Several types and degrees of incompatible land uses intrude on the historic scene of the 
park. Road noise is a major intrusion; the noise intensity varies from the multilane, limited 
access Route 128, to the two-lane, heavily used Route 2A, and to local lanes such as Mill 
Street and Bedford Road. Airplane noises from civilian and military flights at Hanscom Field 
are heard throughout the park. 

There are also visual intrusions around the park. Some of these intrusions can be screened 
by vegetation or walls, some are sufficiently distant from the actual historic corridor that 

58 



There are also visual intrusions around the park. Some of these intrusions can be screened 
by vegetation or walls, some are sufficiently distant from the actual historic corridor that 
their influence is greatly diminished, and some may eventually be phased out or relocated. 
However, recognizing the park's location in the midst of a rapidly growing metropolitan area, 
it is impractical to imagine all incompatible neighboring land uses being altered for historical 
integrity, especially in the immediate future. However, to manage the surrounding 
landscapes for change and development impacts on the park remains a long-term objective. 

The following are examples of uses compatible with the plan proposal for development of 
the national historical park: 

continued existing residential use over the short term until owners wish to sell; over the 
long term, the objective would be to reduce intrusions presented by residential use on 
the historic scene 

continued existing conservation land used for passive recreation 

continued existing agricultural uses 

In some instances, land currently in a compatible use will be acquired when the owner 
offers to sell, in order to meet long-range objectives of protecting the historic resources, 
restoring the historic scene, or providing visitor use. The following actions by a landowner 
would be considered incompatible uses in the park: 

new commercial development 

new residential development on previously undeveloped land 

expansion of an existing commercial or residential property 

conversion of a residential property to commercial use that requires exterior changes or 
generates traffic 

construction of additional separate residences on previously developed property 

subdivision or splits in ownership for any of the above uses 

documented increase in damage to resources, scenery, or the historic scene 

METHODS OF PROTECTION 

The land protection methods considered in formulating recommendations for this plan have 
been analyzed for their applicability in protecting park resources and visitor use experiences. 

Federal, State, and Local Land Use Regulations 

Applicable federal, state, and local regulations were considered in developing protection 
methods. At the federal level, the park is listed on the National Register of Historic Places 
and thus has some protection from federal or federally assisted or permitted actions that 
might have an adverse impact on the historic resources. Commonwealth zoning regulations 
require that historic areas be considered in developing local plans. 



59 



Local governments in Massachusetts enjoy a high degree of home rule, and the three 
towns containing the park are largely responsible for determining present and future land 
uses, according to their own prerogatives. All have zoning ordinances, subdivision 
regulations, overlaying historic, or preservation/conservation zoning. The town plans 
reference historic preservation as one of the purposes of zoning. However, potentially 
adverse changes in land use are continuing. The majority of the changes are occurring 
where the greatest population growth and residential development has occurred in the past 
10 years. 

Table 5 shows the status of planning and land use regulations in the towns around the 
park. 





Table 5: Local Planning 


and Land Use Regulations 




Comprehensive 
Plans 


Zoning 
Ordinances 


Subdivision 
Regulations 


Concord 


Long Range Plan 
October 1987 


Amended 4/85 


Updated 3/86 


Lexington 


None 


Amended 5/87 


Updated 9/86 


Lincoln 


In progress 


Amended 11/86 


Updated 10/82 



In addition to local regulation, private, nonprofit organizations could assist the park by 
encouraging and accepting open space easements that would preserve historic scenes and 
resources next to the park. 

The National Park Service does not have the desire or the financial ability to own or 
administratively control all of the property bordering Minute Man National Historical Park. 
It is, however, vitally interested in current land uses or potential land use changes in areas 
that border or are visible from the park units. 

The National Park Service recognizes that land use changes will continue in all three local 
jurisdictions in which the park is located and that the viability of the region is dependent 
on providing the resources necessary to sustain a positive economy. 

The NPS objective is to continue to work with local governments and property owners to 
develop land use protection strategies that will be mutually advantageous to all concerned. 
Land use changes that are carefully planned and defined with full regard for the resources 
of the park can be developed to a level of compatibility that is acceptable to both the 
National Park Service and the local communities. The sharing of objectives between local 
governments and the Park Service through continual communication can bring about the 
necessary level of compatibility. 

Preservation of the area's heritage, represented in this plan, can only be achieved with the 
support and cooperation of local governments. This support can take numerous forms but 
is most effective through the actions of local planning commissions and the continuing 
enactment of land use zoning controls that recognize the unique value of the park, the 
national significance of the history it represents, and the role it plays in the quality of life 
in the area. Establishing guidelines for building heights, development density, and vegetative 



60 



screening as part of local development reviewing processes, could help preserve the 
traditional setting throughout the communities surrounding the park. 

Acquisition 

There are several types of acquisition, including purchase, donation and bargain sales, 
purchase and sell-back, exchange, and easement. 

The purchase of property is based on appraisals to determine the fair market value. If a 
landowner is interested in selling and the National Park Service has indicated an interest 
in the property and has the funds to purchase the property, the federal government will 
have the property appraised. The landowner is encouraged to accompany the appraiser to 
point out features of the property that should be considered in making the appraisal. 

The offer is based on an approved appraisal. This appraisal is a professional estimate of 
fair market value, which is the price that an owner could reasonably expect to receive if the 
property sold on the open market. The offer price will not be less than the approved 
appraised value. 

Donations and bargain sales are methods of acquiring land or interests in land at less than 
full market value. Landowners may receive tax advantages by donating fee or less-than-fee 
interests of their land to the United States. A bargain sale is a sale of property at a price 
that is less than its fair market value. The result is part sale and part charitable contribution. 
Landowners should consult a qualified tax advisor for details. The opportunity exists to use 
these methods for some acquisitions proposed in this plan. 

Purchase and sell-back or lease-back transactions can also be used to acquire certain 
specific interests from property owners. In these situations, the land is purchased; certain 
restrictions providing resource protection become an encumbrance on the title to the 
property, and the land is then sold or leased back to a private party, subject to these 
restrictions. 

This technique seems to have limited application. It could be used instead of easements 
to encourage the continuation of open, undeveloped land uses. The cost of such an 
arrangement could also exceed that of an easement, which would accomplish the same 
purpose. The use of sell-back and lease-back to encourage the continuation of agricultural 
uses would have the added benefit of preserving a traditional land use. 

An exchange involves trading private lands or interests with the United States for land or 
rights of equal value. Where equal value does not exist and exchange is still desired, the 
difference can be made up by either party to equalize the value. It is proposed that lands 
deleted from the park be used in exchange for lands proposed for acquisition wherever 
possible. 

Fee simple acquisition is the acquisition of all interest in a property. Federal acquisition of 
land in fee title, in most instances, provides the maximum protection of land and its 
resources and often provides the greatest opportunity for visitor use. Fee acquisition is 
required in those instances where maximum protection of resource values is necessary, the 
area is desired for public use, or an investment of federal funds requires fee acquisition 
before improvement. Fee acquisition also may be appropriate where an easement would 
so limit use of the land that the easement price would be virtually equal to fee; an example 
would be a scenic easement prohibiting all construction on a piece of land suitable for 
intensive urban development. Fee acquisition is also appropriate for popular visitor use 

61 



areas and where resource protection cannot be ensured through use of less-than-fee 
measures. 

An easement is a legally enforceable interest in land created by a transfer of property 
rights. Property ownership may be envisioned as a bundle of rights, including among others 
the rights to farm, to cut trees, to construct facilities, and to exclude others from the 
property. The number of such rights that may be included in an easement is unlimited. 
Easement rights can be characterized as positive (allowing a use) or negative (restricting 
a use). For example, the federal government could acquire a positive easement to ensure 
public access across a property or a negative easement to restrict the owner's right to 
construct a house. 

To provide adequate protection, the terms and stipulations of easements must reflect the 
type of land involved and the specific level of protection required. Whether to purchase a 
property in fee or in easement depends on several factors, including- resource values, 
immediacy of visitor use needs, and the needs of the owner. 

Cooperative Agreements 

These documents define administrative arrangements between two or more parties. For the 
park, agreements such as the one between the National Park Service and the Town of 
Concord regarding management and maintenance of the memorial walkway and The North 
Bridge could be negotiated. For instance, cooperative agreements between the National 
Park Service and the towns of Concord, Lexington, and Lincoln, the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts, other units of government, and private parties could be made regarding 
coordinated interpretive efforts on traffic management, planning, or other shared goals. The 
terms of agreements might relate to the specific parcel or area of the park to be affected, 
the type of activity or level of development to be provided, any necessary restrictive 
provisions, and who is responsible for enforcement. Cooperative agreements are most 
applicable to shared planning and maintenance of facilities and services, definition of law 
enforcement responsibilities, and management of wildlife habitat. 



Technical Assistance 

Park staff can provide landowners with information about importance of the park and 
opportunities for development to be designed to minimize adverse impacts. 

Exclusion/Deletion 

In addition to identifying land requiring protection to serve the purposes of the park, the 
status of all land within the park, whether federally owned or not, was reviewed. The 
National Park Service conducted this review of landownership as part of the general 
management plan preparation process. Certain lands have been identified for exclusion from 
the park. Recommendations for exclusion are based on the lack of primary associations with 
the historic events that occurred in the battle, or beyond the historic scene, and lands 
surplus to park needs that were acquired to conform with property lines. 



62 



LAND PROTECTION PRIORITIES 

This section contains the rationale for protection of lands and priority and reasons for the 
recommendations. Three categories of properties were identified. 

Primary Historic Resource Tracts 

These include land, roads, structures, archeological remains, and other cultural resources 
associated with the fighting on April 19, 1775, i.e., sites of engagement, roads used by the 
British column, and roads and land used by the Americans and the British flankers. 

Tracts Required for Consolidation of Park Resources and Visitor Use 

These include essential historic resources and scenes that are currently separated from the 
park, certain access roads that cross The Battle Road and through the historic scene, and 
land that may provide for relocating portions of roads identified in the plan as necessary 
to preserve historic resources and provide for public health and safety. 

Tracts Required to Preserve the Historic Setting 

These tracts ensure the continuation of open space and other compatible uses adjoining 
the historic area, which can be protected by less-than-fee acquisition, cooperative 
agreements, and reliance on local zoning, i.e., historic districts. 

Tract priorities were determined and ranked accordingly as follows: 

Priority 1 - Tracts that contain land or features that are primary historic resources, 
or that would provide for park development needs, or that provide access across The 
Battle Road. 

Priority 2 - Tracts that contain land or features that are primary historic resources, 
or which would provide for visitor safety or park development needs, for which 
acquisition is complicated by need to provide alternate public and/or private access. 

Priority 3 - Tracts that are important in retention of the historic scene. 

Tables 6 and 7 represent land protection recommendations in light of these criteria. A 
general description was added for those properties that would be acquired by donation, 
exchange, or transfer, or for other clarification. 



63 



Table 6: Summary of Land Protection Recommendations 



Present Ownership 



Private 

Town or county 

State 

Other federal agency 

Other public 

Total 

Overall total - 239.0 acres 



Recommended Type of Protection 

Fee Acquisition Less-than-fee Acquisition 

117.5 acres 9.5 acres 

8.5 
38.5 50.0 

5.0 
10.0 



approx. 179.5 acres 



approx. 59.5 acres 



64 



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66 



FEE ACQUISITION (TRANSFER) 
DELETION 




TO LEXINGTON 



PORTION OF 
01-157 



: 01-138' 



LAND PROTECTION 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

SEGMENT 1 

MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

406 I 20036 
DSC I AUG 89 



y 







CURRENT NPS OWNERSHIP 
FEE ACQUISITION (PURCHASE) 
FEE ACQUISITION (DONATION) 



FEE ACQUISITION (TRANSFER) 
DELETION 



\ 



\ /\ 



fit 




TO LEXINGTON 



PORTION OF 
01-157 



PORTION OF 01-138 / 

TO ROUTE 128 & BOSTON 



200 400 600 FEET 



LAND PROTECTION 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

SEGMENT 1 

MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 
■ 106 1 30036 
DSC I AUG 69 




LAND PROTECTION 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

SEGMENT 2 

MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

"06 I 20037 



DSC ' AUG 69 



""] CURRENT NPS OWNERSHIP 



FEE ACQUISITION (PURCHASE) 

FEE ACQUISITION (DONATION) 

EASEMENT 

DELETION 

FEE ACQUISITION (TRANSFER) 




LAND PROTECTION 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

SEGMENT 2 

MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



200 400 600 FEET 




TO STATE RO 



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LAND PROTECTION 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

SEGMENT 3 

MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

406 I 20038 



DSCI AUG 89 




200 400 600 FEET 



CURRENT NPS OWNERSHIP 

FEE ACQUISITION (PURCHASE) 

FEE ACQUISITION (DONATION) 

DELETION 

EASEMENT/COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT 



LAND PROTECTION 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

SEGMENT 3 

MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 



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FEE ACQU 




LAND PROTECTION 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

SEGMENT 4 

MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

■406 1 20019 
Odd AUG 89 



£~ .1 CURRENT NPS OWNERSHIP 

$§§§§§§•§1 FEE ACQUISITION (PURCHASE 




LAND PROTECTION 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

SEGMENT 4 

MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



CURRENT NPS OWNERSHIP 
COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT 



\ 



\ 




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WAYSIDE UNIT 



NORTH BRIDGE UNIT 

LAND PROTECTION 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

SEGMENT 5 

MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

406120040 
DSC I AUG 89 




CURRENT NPS OWNERSHIP 
COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT 




WAYSIDE UNIT 



NORTH BRIDGE UNIT 

LAND PROTECTION 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

SEGMENT 5 

MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

406 1 20040 

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MANAGEMENT ZONING 



Park lands are zoned to indicate which park operations and management functions, visitor 
uses, and developments are appropriate in different locations. The designation of 
management zones are based on the park's authorizing legislation and NPS policies. The 
nature of the park's resources, desired visitor experiences, and established uses were used 
to establish the management zones. This section describes the various zones proposed for 
Minute Man National Historical Park and indicates their approximate acreages (also see 
Management Zoning map). 

HISTORIC ZONE (708 acres) 

Lands in this zone are managed for preservation, protection, and interpretation of cultural 
resources and their settings. Most of the national historical park lies within this zone and 
is further classified into four subzones. 



Preservation Subzone (23 acres) 

Lands and structures that are important because of their aesthetic value and their 
association with persons, events, or periods of history are managed for preservation and 
interpretation in this subzone. Included are the Wayside Unit and some of The Battle Road. 

Preservation/Adaptive Use Subzone (90 acres) 

In this subzone, significant historic structures, including walls and roads, may be used, 
with necessary modifications, for contemporary public and/or administrative functions. Uses 
must permit perpetuation of the culturally significant qualities of the structures. Historic 
buildings within the park and portions of The Battle Road overlain by Route 2A and 
Lexington Road are in this subzone. 

Commemoration Subzone (98 acres) 

Lands in this subzone are managed for interpretation of historic persons, periods, or events 
through resources so altered that they create a commemorative setting rather than a strictly 
historical one. The North Bridge Unit is in this subzone. While the North Bridge, its 
approach walkway, and the Minute Man Statue are under ownership of the Town of 
Concord, they are maintained by the National Park Service and so are included in the unit 
classification. 



Landscape Management Subzone (497 acres) 

Lands in this subzone are intensively managed to enhance aesthetic quality, facilitate 
interpretation, and/or promote public use and enjoyment. Classified in this subzone are 
open lands maintained through grazing, haying, or other agricultural use or by cyclic 
burning, and lands cultivated to replicate historic gardens or orchards. 



77 



PARK DEVELOPMENT ZONE (38 acres) 

Areas developed to serve visitor needs and/or park management, and where development 
and/or intensive use substantially alter the historic or natural setting are included in this 
zone. 



78 




NORTH 



1800 FEET 



MANAGEMENT ZONING 
MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

406 I 20017B 
DSC I AUG 89 




PARK 



PARK DEVELOPMENT ZONE 



HISTORIC ZONE 

% PRESERVATION SUBZONE 

PRESERVATION/ ADAPTIVE USE SUBZONE 
COMMEMORATION SUBZONE 
LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT SUBZONE 



900 1800 FEET 



MANAGEMENT ZONING 
MINUTE MAN 

NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

4061200178 



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SUMMARY OF PUBLIC AND OTHER AGENCY INVOLVEMENT 



The new long-range planning process, leading to development of a general management 
plan for Minute Man National Historical Park, began with a working paper titled "Battle 
Road, Memorial or Arterial?" distributed in October 1983 to town officials, citizen groups, 
and interested individuals. In 1984 the Harvard University Graduate School of Design began 
a student project to assess issues affecting the park. 

In April-May 1985 the National Park Service held workshops in the towns of Concord, 
Lexington, Lincoln, and Cambridge to determine the planning issues including the following: 

park identity 

interpretation 

treatment of The Battle Road historic structures and landscape 

traffic 

land protection 

These issues remain as primary concerns for park development and management. They 
were addressed in the alternatives in the Draft General Management Plan/Environmental 
Assessment/Land Protection Plan (Draft GMP/EA/LPP) distributed for public review in May 
1988. 

Five issues of a newsletter, "The Correspondent," were published and distributed to a 
mailing list that grew to include the names of more than 1 ,950 individuals and organizations. 

Responses to questionnaires included with two issues of the newsletter indicated significant 
initial support for removal of traffic from The Battle Road. Costs were a concern, but the 
significance of the historic resources was seen to justify concerted effort towards this goal. 
Park visitors also supported the concept of traffic removal. Some respondents also 
expressed a desire for additional interpretive opportunities and better directional signing. 

Meetings were held in the local communities in the spring and early summer of 1987 
concerning preliminary plan proposals and alternatives. Battle Road alternatives were well 
supported and broadly discussed. North Bridge alternatives were received less favorably, 
and the National Park Service called another meeting in January 1988 to discuss problems 
and clarify concerns for that site. 

During the planning process the National Park Service conducted information meetings or 
held discussions with federal, state, and local officials, including the U.S. Air Force 
(Hanscom AFB), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Massachusetts Executive Office of 
Transportation and Construction, Department of Public Works, Minuteman Regional 
Vocational-Technical High School, and residents and officials of the towns of Concord, 
Lexington, and Lincoln. Historical groups also were contacted. 

In an issue of "The Correspondent" dated May 19, 1988, the National Park Service 
announced the availability of a Draft GMP/EA/LPP for public review from May 23 through 
August 1, 1988. In response to public requests and requests of the selectmen of the three 
towns, the public comment period was later extended for an additional three months to 
November 1, 1988, to expand the opportunities to review and comment on the plan. 
Another issue of "The Correspondent" was distributed in July 1988 to announce this 
extension and to clarify elements of the plan that may have been confusing to readers. 



83 



More than 2,250 copies of the document were distributed to federal, state, and local 
government officials, agencies, interest groups, and organizations, as well as private 
individuals. Regional and local newspapers and radio stations were sent news releases 
concerning the public open house meetings and review period as well as copies of the 
Draft GMP/EA/LPP. 

Open house meetings were held at Minute Man National Historical Park on June 23 
and 25, 1988, to provide opportunities for the public to discuss or ask questions about the 
Draft GMP/EA/LPP with members of the park staff and planning team. More than 200 
individuals attended these meetings. Their major concerns were acquisition of private 
properties to construct the relocated Route 2A and Lexington Road, the environmental 
effects and costs of the bypass Route 2A road relocation, and potential changes in traffic 
patterns in and adjacent to the park. 

A total of 104 written comments and 6 petitions were received during the 160-day review 
period. Of these, 16 letters were from elected officials, federal, state, and local agencies, 
and from owners of commercial property. Eighty-two letters were received from private 
individuals. 

During the public review period, NPS representatives met with individuals and organizations, 
including Hayward Pond Neighborhood Association, Minuteman Regional Vocational- 
Technical High School, Cranberry Hill Associates, adjacent landowners, and residents of the 
three towns. 

NPS officials also attended meetings with members of the staff of Senators Kennedy and 
Kerry, Congressmen Markey and Atkins, Massachusetts Executive Office of Transportation 
and Construction, Hanscom Area Transportation Study group, Friends of The Battle Road, 
and news media. They also attended 17 meetings with representatives of the towns of 
Lexington, Lincoln, and Concord. Following the public review period, follow-up meetings 
were held with representatives of each community to clarify the comments received. 

General public and governmental responses called for changes in the Draft GMP. These 
responses can be grouped into the following areas of concern: the need, cost, and effects 
of road relocation; land acquisition and land acquisition policies; visitor access to park 
resources and programs; treatment of existing park-owned lands; and overall cost of 
development. 

Public comment was divided over the issue of road relocation - concerns about the high 
cost of road relocation were expressed; however, there was support for preserving the 
historic features of the park. 

Public concern and the park's own management outlook did not favor the use of eminent 
domain for acquiring private homes. There was general support for the acquisition of private 
land at market value as it was offered for sale. There also was support for the preservation 
of open space and protection of critical park resources. 

The lack of adequate directional signs and visitor difficulty in trying to identify park 
resources was a recurring theme. This reinforces the issue of park "identity" as expressed 
at the outset of the planning effort. 

Many reviewers questioned the present limited use and development of park-owned land, 
much of which is restricted by private residential use within the park. The National Park 
Service reexamined the prospect of more intensive use of park-owned lands, dispersing and 



84 



expanding visitor use throughout the Battle Road Unit, and placing a greater emphasis on 
landscape management and screening. 

The costs in the plan reflected a significant estimate for construction of alternate roadways. 
The National Park Service explored a lesser degree of development, consistent with goals 
of improving understanding of the park themes, providing for greater use of existing park 
resources, and seeking cost efficiency. 

A Record of Public Involvement documenting the planning process and public input was 
completed. It summarizes meetings and written responses. 

The administrative record of the NPS selection of a plan, subsequent to agency and public 
review of draft alternatives, was completed on July 6, 1989. This Record of Decision, 
prepared in memorandum format, was made available to the public for 45 days on July 12, 
1989. It provided the management guidelines that the goals and actions prescribed by the 
General Management Plan follow. 



85 



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APPENDIX A: LEGISLATION 

Public Law 86-321 

September 21, 1959 



7. Minute Man National Historical Park 

Pact 

Establishment of park authorized —Act of September 21, 1959 219 



An Act To provide for the establishment of Minute Man Na- 
tional Historical Park in Massachusetts, and for other pur- 
poses, approved September 21, 1959 (73 Stat. 590) 

Whereas the outbreak of the War of the American Revo- 
lution was essential and prerequisite to the achievement 
of American independence and the arqation of a Fed- 
eral Government; and 
Whereas the events relating to the beginning of Revolu- 
tionary hostilities on the 18th and 10th of April 1775, 
and associated with Paul Revere, the Minute Men, and 
the British are of great importance in American his- 
tory; and 
Whereas a number of historic properties, buildings, sites, 
and objects in Boston, Massachusetts, and the vicinity, 
thereof, including the road and roadsites between Lex- 
ington and Concord, are intimately connected with the 
events that opened the war, and consequently, merit 
preservation and interpretation in the public interest 
as prime examples of the Nation's historical heritage : 
Therefore 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of the United States of America in Congress as- 
sembled. That in order to preserve for the benefit of the Minute Man 
American people certain historic structures and prop- JSricIilpart?" 
erties of outstanding national significance associated with Eit*t>iuhm«t. 
the opening of the War of the American Revolution, 
Minute Man National Historical Park is hereby author- 
ized to be established in the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts. 

The park shall comprise not more than seven hundred 
and fifty acres as may be designated by the Secretary 
of the Interior from within the area beginning at Fiske 
Hill and thence lying along Massachusetts Avenue, Mar- 
rett Road and Marrett Street in the town of Lexington, 
along Nelson Road, Virginia Road, Old Bedford Road, 
and North Great Road or State Route 2-A in the town of 
Lincoln, and along Lexington Road, Monument Street, 
Liberty Street and Lowell Road in the town of Concord 
to and including the North Bridge and properties on 
both sides of the Concord River in the vicinity of the 
North Bridge. (16 U.S.C. § 410s [Supp. II].) 

Sec. 2. The Secretary of the Interior is authorized to Aeouuition 
acquire by donation or with donated funds, or with funds of 

219 



89 



220 



HI. NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARKS — MINUTE MAN 



Node* In F.E. 



Preservation 
of historic 
■lte«. 



16 U.8.C. 461- 
468e. 

Advisory com- 
mission. 



Administra- 
tion. 



Appropriation. 



hereby authorized to be appropriated, lands and inter- 
ests in lands within the area designated for the park. 
Administrative jurisdiction of Federal lands lying with- 
in the area designated for the park shall, with the con- 
currence of the Federal agency involved, be transferred 
to the Secretary of the Interior for administration as a 
part of the park. 

The park shall be established as Minute Man National 
Historical Park by notice in the Federal Register when 
the Secretary of the Interior finds that sufficient lands 
within the designated area have been acquired to warrant 
such establishment. (16 U.S.C. § 410t [Supp. II].) 

Sec. 3. To provide further for the preservation and 
interpretation of historic sites, structures, and properties 
lying along the entire route or routes where significant 
events occurred on the 18th and 19th of April 1775, in 
the cities of Boston, Cambridge, Medford, and Somer- 
ville, and the towns of Arlington, Brookline, Concord, 
Lexington, and Lincoln, including the area generally 
described in section 1 as lying between Fiske Hill and 
the North Bridge, the Secretary of the Interior is author- 
ized, in accordance with the purposes of this Act, to enter 
into cooperative agreements with the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts, political subdivisions thereof, corpora- 
tions, associations, or individuals, and to erect and main- 
tain tablets or markers, in accordance with provisions 
contained in the Act approved August 21, 1935, entitled 
"An Act to provide for the preservation of historic 
American sites, buildings, objects, and antiquities of na- 
tional significance, and for other purposes" (49 Stat. 
666). (16 U.S.C. § 410u [Supp. II].) 

Sec. 4. The Secretary of the Interior is authorized to 
appoint an advisory commission of five members to ad- 
vise him on the development of Minute Man National 
Historical Park, to consist of one member to be recom- 
mended by the selectmen of each of the towns of Concord, 
Lexington, and Lincoln, Massachusetts; one member to 
be recommended by the Governor of the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts ; and one member to be designated by 
the Secretary. (16 U.S.C. § 410v [Supp. II].) 

Sec. 5. When established pursuant to this Act, the 
park shall be administered, protected, and developed by 
the Secretary of the Interior in accordance with the pro- 
visions of the Act of August 25, 1916 (39 Stat. 535; 16 
U.S.C. 1-4), as amended and supplemented, and the His- 
toric Sites Act of August 21, 1935 (49 Stat. 666; U.S.C. 
461-467). (16 U.S.C. § 410w [Supp. II].) 

Sec. 6. There are hereby authorized to be appropri- 
ated such sums, but not more than $8,000,000, as may be 
needed for the acquisition of lands and interests in lands 



90 



HI. NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARKS — MINUTE MAN 221 

and for development of the Minute Man National His- 
torical Park, or which not more than $5,000,000 shall be 
used for acquisition purposes, and in addition thereto, 
such sums as may be needed for its administration and 
maintenance. (16 U.S.C. § 410x [Supp. II].) 



91 



Public Law 91-548 
December 14, 1970 



6. Minute Man 

An Act to amend the Act of September XI, 1959 (73 Stat. 590), to 
authorize the Secretary of the Interior to reriae the boundaries 
of Minute Man National Historical Park, and for other 
porpooe*, (84 Stat. 14M) 



Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa- 
tive* of the United States of America in Congress as- 
sembled, That section 1 of the Act of September 21, 1959 
(73 Stat. 590) is amended by inserting "(a)" after the 
word "that" in the first sentence and adding two subsec- 
tions, as follows : 

"(b) Notwithstanding the description set forth in sub- 
section (a) of this section, if the Secretary should deter- 
mine that the relocation of Highway 2 by the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts makes it desirable to establish 
new boundaries in common with, contiguous or adjacent 
to the proposed right-of-way for that highway, he is au- 
thorized to relocate such boundaries accordingly, and 
shall give notice thereof by publication of a map or other 
suitable description in the Federal Register: Provided, 
That any net acreage increase by reason of the boundary 
revision and land exchanges with the Commonwealth 
shall not be included in calculations of acreage in regard 
to the limitation set forth in subsection (a) of this sec- 
tion, but shall be in addition thereto. 

u (c) Any lands added to the Minute Man National 
Historical Park, pursuant to subsection (b).may be ac- 
quired only if such acquisition can be accomplished with- 
out cost for land acquisition and, when so acquired, shall 
be subject to all laws, rules, and regulations applicable 
thereto." 

Sec. 2. Section 6 of the Act of September 21, 1951 (73 
Stat. 590), is amended by (1) deleting '•$3,000,000*' and 
inserting ••$13,900,000" and (2) deleting "$5,000,000** and 
inserting '-§10.900,000". 

Approved December 14, 1970. 

U HrtaM— aWe—fp 

Shh B aport Ho. P1-1SSS (OoamtttM oa latartor aad Usalar Affaln). 
**MU Report No, P1-1SP0 (Coaalttct ea lattrlor aad Innltr AfalitJ. 
<■— Pimml accord. VoL 11* (1070) : 

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Dot. 4. coacidered tad p«M»d Sentte. 

203 



92 



APPENDIX B: TRAFFIC DATA 



Traffic volumes for Route 2A and Lexington Road in 1983 are shown below. These data were 
developed by the Central Transportation Planning Staff in the "Hanscom Area Traffic Study" (a 
cooperation transportation planning effort of a number of metropolitan state agencies). 



Location 

2 A (Marrett Road) west of Route 128 
2A at Lexington town limits 
2A east of Concord Turnpike Cutoff 
Lexington Road west of turnpike cutoff 
Hanscom Drive north of Route 2A 





A.M. 


P.M. 


IWVDT* 


Peak Hour 


Peak Hour 


19,900 


1,684 


1,970 


17,500 


1,513 


1,700 


15,100 


1,322 


1,545 


7,900 


819 


979 


6,600 


547 


651 



*AWDT - average weekday traffic 



The highest volumes in 1983 were observed on Marrett Road west of MA 128 indicating a high 
level of congestion in this segment. The traffic study concluded that Route 2A in Lexington and 
Lincoln faced congestion and safety problems at uncontrolled intersections. Vehicular drivers on 
side streets accessing Route 2A face intolerable delays during peak hour movements. 

Traffic accidents were analyzed in 1980 and 1981 indicating that Route 2A recorded a fairly high 
number of accidents compared to other road segments in the traffic study area. The intersection 
of Marrett Street and Old Massachusetts Avenue was potentially the most hazardous intersection 
of those along Route 2A but about average compared to other road segments in the traffic study 
area. 

Traffic counts recorded from January through March 1986 on Route 2A from east of Hanscom Drive 
to west of Brooks Road indicate very similar levels of traffic and congestion as the counts in 1983 
("A Proposal for a Planned Office Development Lincoln North," Cranberry Hill Associates, Lexington, 
Massachusetts). The 1983 counts in the Battle Road unit were recorded in July and August; winter 
traffic volumes may be lower due to seasonal variation. 

Lexington Road from Route 2A to Meriam's Corner carries about 50 percent of the traffic that occurs 
on 2A near Hanscom Drive. Consequently, congestion and travel delay is lower. Some congestion 
and minor delay occur at Meriam's Corner at the intersection of Lexington Road and Old Bedford 
Road. 



NOTE: Data currently available from regional transportation planning agencies. 



93 



APPENDIX C: DESCRIPTION OF CULTURAL RESOURCES 



Table of Contents 

I. Roads 

II. Landscape Features 

A. Stone Walls 

B. Commemorative Features 

1. British Soldiers' Grave 

2. Memorial Cedar Planting 

C. Landscaping 

1. Terraces at The Wayside 

2. Formal Gardens at the Buttrick Estate 

D. Pathways 

1. Path from The Wayside to Mill Brook 

2. Larch Path from The Wayside to Orchard House 

3. Path to the Top of the Hillside at The Wayside 

E. Geographic Areas 

1. Fiske Hill 

2. The Bluff 

3. Bloody Angles 

4. Hardy's Hill 

5. Meriam's Corner 

6. Muster Field 

III. Buildings 

A. Buildings Standing in 1775 

B. Buildings Built after 1775 

IV. Archeological Sites 

A. Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Sites 

B. Nineteenth Century Sites 

C. Prehistoric Sites 

V. Museum Collections 

A. Historical Collections 

B. Archival Collections 

C. Archeological Collections 

VI. Commemorative Monuments and Markers 



94 



I. ROADS 

The Battle Road is the primary cultural resource at Minute Man National Historical Park. Called 
the Concord Road in the 18th century, it linked Concord, the tirst inland settlement in Massachusetts, 
with Cambridge, Boston, and the sea. Also important is the network of other roads that joined it, 
since minuteman and militia companies from outlying towns entered the action at these points along 
the route. While the stone walls, landscape features, and historic buildings help to "flesh out" the 
historic scene, the road itself will always remain the central element. 

Documentary records indicate that the width and surface preparation of the Concord Road varied 
considerably from place to place along its route. Recent archeological investigations along Nelson 
Road provided important information about its surface in that area: there was a distinct applied top 
layer, made mostly of sandy soil with a small amount of clay mixed in. Fortuitously, the excavation 
also exposed a sizable pothole that had been repaired by filling it with large cobblestones. 

Documentary information about individual roads, below, will help explain the network of roads 
that pass through the park today. The dates included here are the earliest known to date; additional 
research will provide a more precise dating of some of these thoroughfares. For convenience the 
roads are identified by their modern names. 

Old Massachusetts Avenue, Lexington (Concord Road-Great Road-Bay Road)— by 1636; 
present alignment probably early 20th century. Most of the earlier alignment, likely that in 
1775, is still visible. 

Wood Street, Lexington— before 1775 

New Massachusetts Avenue, Lexington — constructed in 1961 

Marrett Road, Lexington— after 1830, by mid-20th century 

Marrett Street, Lexington (Concord Road) — by 1636 

Private driveway, west of Jacob Whittemore House, Lexington— before 1830 

Airport Road, Lexington/Lincoln— built about 1946 

Massachusetts Avenue, Lexington — 1802 

Nelson Road, Lincoln (Concord Road)— by 1636 

North Great Road, Lincoln (portion of Concord Road)— 1802 

Mill Street, Lincoln— before 1770 

Road to Aaron Brooks House Foundation, Lincoln — before 1774 

Bedford Road, Lincoln— by 1756 

Bedford Lane, Lincoln— by 1756 

Virginia Road, Lincoln (Concord Road; portion east of Old Bedford Road)-by 1636 

Virginia Road, Lincoln (west of Bedford Road)— by 1756 

Old Bedford Road, Lincoln (Concord Road; portion south of Virginia Road) — by 1636 

Old Bedford Road, Lincoln (portion north of Virginia Road)— 1721 



95 



Road to Bedford, east of Ephraim Hartwell Tavern, Lincoln— between 1831 and 1873, trace 
in 1943; no longer visible 

North Great Road, Lincoln (portion south of Virginia and Old Bedford Roads)— 1803 

North Great Road, Lincoln (Concord Road; portion west to the Concord line)— by 1636 

Brooks Road, Lincoln — before 1735 

Concord Turnpike Cutoff, Concord/Bypass Road, Lincoln— built in mid-1 930s 

Lexington Road, Concord (Concord Road)— by 1636 

Shadyside Road, Concord — early 18th century 

Road to Brick Kiln Island, Concord (north of Lexington Road between Farwell Jones and 
Olive Stow houses) — unknown 

Farm road on Concord/Lincoln line (south of Lexington Road)— unknown 

Manual Drive, Concord — built ca. 1960 

Old Bedford Road, Concord — before 1775 

Hawthorne Lane, Concord— by 1640 

Monument Street, Concord (portion from center of town to the turn toward The North 
Bridge)— by 1654 

Monument Street, Concord (portion between turn toward the bridge and Liberty Street, over 
the Flint Bridge)— built in 1793 

Liberty Street, Concord (portion from Monument Street to intersection with Estabrook 
Road)— before 1754 

Liberty Street, Concord (portion from Estabrook Road to Jonas Bateman property)— built in 
1793 

Liberty Street, Concord (portion from Jonas Bateman property to Lowell Road)— 1754 

Estabrook Road, Concord— before 1700 

Road to Groton, Concord (portion from fork, west of The North Bridge, to the intersection 
at Liberty Street near the Willard and Ephraim Buttrick property) — before 1754; use 
discontinued in 1793 

Road to Acton, Concord (portion from fork, west of The North Bridge, to intersection with 
Liberty Street by Jonas Bateman property)— before 1754; use discontinued in 1793 

II. LANDSCAPE FEATURES 

A. Stone Walls 

Minute Man's cultural resources include about 25 miles of stone walls. Although the use of 
stone walls is well-documented, there are no precise methods of dating the walls in this area. Dry 
laid construction techniques provide no mortar samples, and the same stones may have been used 
to build and rebuild walls any number of times since settlement by Europeans. 



96 



Interpretation of the stone walls visible today requires consideration of their dating, location, and 
height. The dating and location may be determined through the corroboration of the documents by 
aerial photos (for the last 60 or 75 years), survey information and, occasionally, archeological 
evidence. It is not possible to determine the actual height of a wall at a point in the past, however. 
We may never really be able to determine whether or not a specific wall dates from the 18th 
century. Even if there is good documentary or physical evidence for a particular wall having 
18th-century origins we can never be certain precisely what it looked like. 

Extensive documentary research on the land in the park, in conjunction with the ongoing 
archeological survey project, suggests a few places where stone walls may date to the late 18th 
century. Those places are the following: 

David Fiske Property, Lexington - Historic records for this property provide extremely detailed 
acreage descriptions. Recent survey work, within the areas bounded by the present stone 
walls, corroborates these figures. 

Daniel Brown Property, Lincoln - Documentation for this property provides detailed 
information. Analysis of this data, combined with extant walls, suggests that the east and 
west walls may well be original. 

Samuel Hartwell Property, Lincoln - Stephen Davis's 1779 survey of the Hartwell property 
and nearby holdings along the north side of Virginia Road clearly illustrate stone walls. An 
extant wall on the east side of the Samuel Hartwell house foundation, approximately 
perpendicular to the road, seems to match the one in the 18th-century survey. 

Joseph Mason Property, Lincoln - Documentary data in conjunction with Stephen Davis's 
1779 map, described above, indicate that the extant walls west of the Joseph Mason house 
remains and the walls bordering Old Bedford Road were present in the 18th century. 
Particularly noteworthy is that these walls bound Mason's 6-acre pasture. 

Jonas Bateman Property, Concord - Recent archeological investigations adjacent to the 
stone wall on the western boundary of Bateman's property suggest that it may have been 
constructed before the deposit of some of the older cultural material. 

B. Commemorative Features 

1. British Soldier's Grave 

The grave marks the place where the remains of three British soldiers were buried. 
Tradition in Concord says that the site was investigated in the early 20th-century and that the 
remains of two complete and one partial skeleton, as well as several artifacts that identified the 
remains as British soldiers (buttons, etc.), were recovered. 

2. Memorial Cedar Planting, Monument Street 

One of the oldest memorials to the battle on April 19, 1775, is the double row of Arbor 
Vitae trees planted by the Town of Concord on April 19, 1825, the 50th anniversary of the fight. 
Located parallel to Monument Street, between the historic road to The North Bridge and the Flint 
Bridge, only a few remain. 

C. Landscaping 

1. Terraces at The Wayside 

Bronson Alcott was anxious to produce food for his family and to create a bucolic setting 
during his years at the home he called Hillside (The Wayside was Nathaniel Hawthorne's name for 
the house). Alcott began the construction of 12 terraces on the hillside in 1845 and finished them 
in July 1847. They were planted with fruit trees and vegetables, with clover and timothy to provide 
grass on the slopes between the terraces. Records list apple and peach trees, as well as cucumbers 
and peas. Alcott's enthusiasm waned as he found himself unable to feed his family entirely from his 
own crops, however, and the terraces were eventually left to fend for themselves. Although no longer 
prominent, vestiges of them still remain. 



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2. Formal Gardens at the Buttrick Estate 

Built in 1911, the Buttrick's new home included some formal plantings in the original 
design. The rectangular garden to the south of the house is visible in an early (pre-1913) plot plan 
of the property drawn by Framingham architect Charles H. Wheeler. The more elaborate gardens, 
including the river and bridge overlooks with their paths and plantings, evolved during the 1920s. A 
preliminary plan by Harold Hill Bloosom, dated 1923, is the first to indicate placement of these 
features. 

D. Paths and Walkways 

1. Path from The Wayside to Mill Brook 

During the Alcott's occupancy of the house, their property extended on the south side 
of Lexington Road as far as Mill Brook. By the mid-1 840s the family had worn a path from the 
house down to the brook, and Alcott built a gabled garden house, completed in 1847, to afford a 
summer retreat. During the 1860s, after Nathaniel Hawthorne had returned from his years abroad, 
he had the pathway planted with evergreens to form a cathedral aisle to the water. A few pine and 
spruce trees still remain along this pathway. 

2. Larch Path from The Wayside to Orchard House 

Eager to facilitate communication and contact between his home and the adjoining 
Orchard House property owned by the Alcotts, Hawthorne created a larch path between the houses 
parallel to, and just north of, Lexington Road. Several larches remain but many are gone, victims 
of the hurricane in 1938. There is still a faint indication of the alignment of the larch path, however. 

3. Path to the Top of the Hillside at The Wayside 

Nathaniel Hawthorne spent long hours working and thinking on the top of the hillside 
behind his home. By 1860 he had created a pathway from the west side of the lawn to the top of 
the hill. One account records that it was bordered by locusts, but this information is inconclusive. The 
vague outline of the path is visible today, just west of the lawn. 

E. Geographic Areas 

1. Fiske Hill 

Fiske Hill is the last site of fighting on The Battle Road within the park boundary. By 
the time the British column reached Fiske Hill they had been badly mauled and their ammunition 
was running short. If Earl Percy and the relief force had not arrived in Lexington at about the same 
time as the retreating forces, Smith's column would probably have been captured. 

2. The Bluff 

The Bluff is a rocky ridge on the north side of The Battle Road, where Marrett Street 
meets Old Massachusetts Avenue. The British were delayed here for some time until they could 
secure the ridge with flankers. Although the accounts do not say that the colonials held the Bluff, 
the implication is that they did, or at least that the British thought they did. The southern slope was 
blasted about 1938 to permit widening of the road. 

3. Bloody Angles 

Bloody Angles refers to the Old Bedford Road and Virginia Road section of The Battle 
Road in Lincoln. The term itself is a late 19th or early 20th century reference, rather than one 
contemporary to the fighting. The heaviest casualties in the park were inflicted on the British here: 
nine killed and several wounded. The Americans also suffered three killed, including the captain of 
the Bedford minutemen. 

4. Hardy's Hill 

Hardy's Hill was the site where several militia units from towns to the south joined the 
running fight along The Battle Road. These companies had been unable to reach The North Bridge 
because of the distance from Concord or the fact that the British held the South Bridge. The 
companies were waiting for the British as the fighting advanced from Meriam's Corner. 



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5. Meriam's Corner 

The running fight, which was to continue 16 miles to Boston and be the point of no 
return, began at Meriam's Corner in Concord. Before the day ended the British would suffer 273 
casualties and the Americans 95. 

6. Muster Field 

The Americans began their march to The North Bridge from the Muster Field. It was 
from here that the minutemen and militia saw smoke rising from the center of Concord and set out 
to protect their homes, and by so doing, set in motion events which would begin the Revolutionary 
War. Emerson's famous "Shot heard 'Round the World" refers to the brief engagement between the 
Americans advancing to protect their homes and the British assigned to hold The North Bridge. 

III. BUILDINGS 

The cultural resources at Minute Man National Historical Park include 27 buildings. Thirteen of 
these were standing at the time of the fighting on April 19, 1775; of the remainder half were built 
between 1776 and 1900 and the rest in the 20th century. 

Comprehensive research and restoration projects have been completed on some of these 
structures; others have had only the most rudimentary research undertaken. In a broader context, 
however, these buildings and their associated grounds can tell us much more than architectural 
history. Most of the structures were located on farms which included one or more outbuildings. 
Some of these would have had permanent foundations and others would have been more temporary 
in nature, but each site has the potential for contributing significant social, economic, and ecological 
information recovered from the archeological resources through interdisciplinary research. 

In the past most archeological investigation at Minute Man has been undertaken primarily to 
locate 18th-century house remains. As a result, the yards around most of the extant buildings have 
never been systematically excavated. These yards probably contain the remains of the household's 
domestic and agricultural activities including gardens, fences, wells, walkways, and perhaps privies. 
Although there have been a variety of disturbances to some of these sites, the houses and yards 
surrounding them should be considered an archeological resource as well as an architectural one. 

A. Buildings Standing in 1775 

1. Jacob Whittemore House - Marrett Street, Lexington 

The five-bay structure with central chimney stack was built prior to 1745 and altered 
several times over the years by a lean-to, ca. 1844; a northeast porch, ca. 1955; and a northwest 
ell, built ca. 1961 and partially removed in 1986. The main entrance retains its Georgian appearance: 
two fluted Doric pilasters support a wide, heavily-moulded and dented entablature. The building was 
part of the historic scene of 1775 and later the home of John Muzzy, a member of the Lexington 
Militia Company. The documentary records list a barn, cornhouse, cider mill, and blacksmith shop 
on the property. 

2. William Smith House - Virginia Road, Lincoln 

Built after 1693, this house has undergone five major alterations and numerous minor 
alterations. Despite the removal of the lean-to, the removal of the central chimney and its 
replacement with two smaller chimneys, and the construction of several additions, the building 
retained its architectural significance and 18th-century character with its 'rare plaster-covered cornice. 
The National Park Service's restoration of the building, completed in 1985, included reconstruction 
of the central chimney stack and lean-to. The house was the home of William Smith, captain of the 
Lincoln Minute Man Company and brother of Abigail Adams. A portion of the grounds remain 
undisturbed. 

3. Ephraim Hartwell Tavern - Virginia Road, Lincoln 

When constructed ca. 1733 this was a two-story structure with a central chimney. Interior 
alterations, including the partitioning of the West Chamber, were made ca. 1756. The building 
functioned as a tavern between 1756 and 1787. A two-story gambrel appendage was added ca. 
1783, and a shed ell about 1830, along with the rebuilding of the original kitchen lean-to. The 

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building was remodeled on both the interior and exterior ca. 1900. In addition to the tavern's 
significance as part of the 1775 scene, the integrity of the building's unusual architectural 
configuration is also important. Despite disturbance to most portions of the yard, valuable 
archeological data may still exist in these areas. 

4. Job Brooks House - North Great Road, Lincoln 

The earliest known dwelling was removed from this site prior to 1666. Built in the last 
half of the 18th century, this two-story structure was extensively altered in the 19th century when 
its two-story bay windows and small chimney stacks were added. The National Park Service removed 
a rear ell in 1965 and covered the rear facade with tar paper; all that remains of the structure is an 
exterior shell. The house is an interesting example of the contrasting methods of 18th- and 
19th-century domestic construction, however, and the documentary record mentions an 18th-century 
barn. The foundation of the 19th-century Hastings Bam is extant. 

5. Samuel Brooks House - Lexington Road, Concord 

Built in 1733, this five-bay, two-story house has a central chimney. An adjoining ell was 
rebuilt and enlarged after a fire in 1937; the chimney was rebuilt above the roof line and substantial 
interior remodeling was done at the same time. 

6. Olive Stow House - Lexington Road, Concord 

The first house on this site was removed between 1684 ad 1689; this house was built 
or replaced about 1760. The two-story structure has a broken scroll pediment over the front entry 
and a central chimney stack. In addition to its architectural features, there was at least one barn 
on the property and likely several other outbuildings as well. 

7. Farwell Jones House - Lexington Road, Concord 

This site was occupied by 1686 and probably earlier; the present structure was built 
before 1775 and extensively remodeled to its present appearance about 1870. There have been 
few alterations since that time. Documentary records indicate a number of other 18th-century 
outbuildings including a barn, a lean-to shop, and a workshop. Some of these structures may have 
been removed by 1775, however. 

8. John Meriam House - Old Bedford Road at Lexington Road, Concord 

This house, a five-bay, two-story structure with a central chimney stack, was built in two 
phases, ca. 1710 and ca. 1730, and has been altered little since. Some interior remodeling was 
completed in the 20th century, however, and the last private owners also rebuilt the rear shed. The 
scene of the start of the "running battle," many historians consider the John Meriam House and the 
action as Meriam's Corner the real "shot heard round the world." Documentary records indicate that 
a barn and a shop were located on the property. 

9. The Wayside Barn - Lexington Road, Concord 

This 18th-century barn was originally located on the south side of Lexington Road; 
Bronson Alcott moved it to its current location and probably shortened it in 1845. There were several 
fabric alterations between 1883 and 1932, but little has been done to it since that time. In its present 
location it is important to the interpretation of The Wayside and its 19th-century literary owners. 

10. The Wayside - Lexington Road, Concord 

Built about 1716-1717, this two-story, five-bay house remained largely unaltered until 
the mid-1 840s when Bronson Alcott placed additions on the east and west ends and a central 
dormer on the main roof. Subsequent additions included a three-story tower on the rear and a 
second floor over the west wing (1860) and a piazza on the west facade (1887). The home of 
Samuel Whitney, Concord Muster Master in 1776, the house was later the home of Bronson Alcott 
and family, Nathaniel Hawthorne, then Daniel and Harriett Lothrop ("Margaret Sidney" to her readers). 
The house and barn were entered on the National Register on July 11, 1980. 

11. Elisha Jones House - Monument Street, Concord 

This house has little architectural integrity remaining from the pre-1775 period. A one-room 
dwelling built about 1650 and later additions about 1695 may have formed the nucleus of the present 
structure; it seems more likely, however, that the former was demolished and that the Elisha Jones 

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House dates from the early 18th century. Little of that structure is apparent any longer, since it was 
extensively remodeled and rebuilt in 1865-66. The shed, also standing in 1775 but in a different 
location in relation to the house, was also rebuilt in 1865-66 and moved to its present location where 
a second story was added. The structure was accorded added significance in 1875, when an 
anecdote concerning a shot fired at Jones by a British soldier first appeared in Harper's Weekly; the 
story has since been disputed. The location of Jones's barn and blacksmith's shop are yet to be 
determined, but the foundation of Keyes' 19th-century barn is extant. 

12. The Old Manse - Monument Street, Concord 

Built about 1770, this two-and-one-half story house has a gambrel roof with a center 
gable, two chimneys, and a sloping rear lean-to. The front entry is flanked by pilasters and topped 
with a simple pediment. It was home to the Reverend William Emerson, minister of the First Parish 
Church, in 1775, and later the home of Ralph Waldo Emerson and Nathaniel Hawthorne. One of the 
closest residences to the fighting at The North Bridge, the house is a very important part of the 
historic scene and one that changed little since that time. 

13. John Butt rick House - Liberty Street, Concord 

Built about 1715, this two-story, five-bay structure has a pedimented front entry porch. 
Alterations, including the raising of the roof in 1883, the rebuilding of a two-story ell on the northwest 
side about 1887, and considerable exterior and interior remodeling about 1937 (including addition 
of a porch on the northeast side and construction of a modern two-car garage), have changed its 
appearance from the time of the battle. Its place in the historic scene, however, and its association 
with Major John Buttrick, the officer who led the colonial forces into the skirmish at The North Bridge, 
make it an important resource. The 18th-century documentation mentions a barn with shed and a 
woodhouse, and the foundation of the 19th-century barn is extant. 

B. Buildings Built After 1775 

1. Hargrove Barn - Marrett Street, Lexington 

This 19th-century barn, remodeled after the hurricane of 1938, was originally built on 
the south side of Massachusetts Avenue. It was moved to the west of the Jacob Whittemore House, 
to a site formerly occupied by another 19th-century barn, in 1978. 

2. John Nelson House - Massachusetts Avenue, Lincoln 

The Daniel Brown House (ca. 1700) may have been moved and incorporated into this 
house when it was constructed ca. 1810. Built on the central hall plan, it has a low-hipped roof, 
two offset chimneys, and a rear ell. A two-story addition was added on the west side at some point, 
probably in the first half of the 19th century. Many of the details, including the spiral and reeded 
courses in the cornice, the flat-arched headlight, and the simple pilasters of the doorway may have 
been taken by builder John Nelson from a handbook by Asher Benjamin. The house has exceptional 
architectural integrity. 

3. John Nelson Barn - Massachusetts Avenue, Lincoln 

This barn, probably built ca. 1810, was altered by additions to the north end about 1830 
and 1900. It was partially rehabilitated by the National Park Service in 1978. 

4. Samuel Hartwell House Foundation Shelter - Virginia Road, Lincoln 

This shelter, constructed in 1986, protects the chimney and foundation of the Samuel 
Hartwell House. Originally constructed in the late 17th century, the house and foundation were 
expanded considerably in the late 18th century. The house, later used as a restaurant, burned 
down in 1968, but the chimney stack and foundation remained intact. Exposure to the elements 
caused deterioration, however, especially to the soft chimney bricks never intended for exterior 
exposure, and stabilization and repointing completed during the 1970s failed to hold. This "ghost" 
structure outlines the skeleton of the late 18th-century house and provides protection from water 
and snow. 

5. McHugh Barn - Virginia Road, Lincoln 

Originally constructed ca. 1830, the barn above the stone cellar walls was destroyed in 
the hurricane of 1938. The McHugh family, then owners of the property, rebuilt it after the storm 
using the original stone foundation, walls, and timbers. 

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6. Joshua Brooks House - North Great Road, Lincoln 

The house, built 1779-81, is a two-story, five-bay structure with a central chimney and 
lean-to. Alterations appear to have been minimal, although a rear ell, connecting to a one-car 
garage, has been added. The Joshua Brooks House is a significant example of late 18-century 
domestic architecture and inventories list a number of outbuildings and features on the property. 
An unidentified foundation, perhaps of a 19th-century barn or stable, is visible at the rear of the 
property. 

7. Noah Brooks Tavern - North Great Road, Lincoln 

The Noah Brooks Tavern, built about 1810, is a two-story Federal house with a hip roof, 
two clapboard sides with rusticated quoins at the corners and brick ends, each of which has two 
chimneys. A 19th-century carriage house is attached to the kitchen ell. The building and grounds 
have considerable integrity. 

8. Rogers Barn - North Great Road, Lincoln 

This large barn, rebuilt following the hurricane of 1938, rests partially on the foundations 
of a 1 9th-century barn. Insurance receipts only covered the cost of a partial reconstruction, however, 
so Rogers chose to complete the portion of the barn closest to his fields: the northern part of the 
basement foundation, therefore, has a flat roof covering it but no structure above. 

9. George Minot House - Lexington Road, Concord 

This home, built about 1865, has been altered little since its construction. It sits on the 
site where an earlier Minot lived from 1765 until 1808, and a house may have been built on this 
parcel as early as 1639. The site has numerous outbuildings on it. 

10. East Quarter Schoolhouse - Lexington Road, Concord 

Built in 1853-54, the schoolhouse was constructed by the Town of Concord to serve 
students in District 2, the eastern portion of town. The architectural style of the building was similar, 
if not identical, to ones built elsewhere in the community at about this time, and has changed little 
except for the addition of the front porch. The outlying schools were all closed in 1887, and the 
building and land sold in 1893. 

11. Daniel Taylor House - Lexington Road, Concord 

This house, thought to have been built about 1810, was altered in the late 19th century 
when the central chimney was replaced with two smaller chimneys and a two-story kitchen ell was 
added to the rear of the structure. In addition to its architectural features, there are a barn 
foundation, another unidentified foundation on the property, and some documentary evidence about 
these outbuildings. 

12. Buttrick Carriage House - Liberty Street, Concord 

Built in 1911 as one of the original outbuildings to Stedman Buttrick's new home, this 
structure contained a squash court, stalls and tackle room, and garage space. The exterior remains 
unchanged, but the interior has been modified somewhat for administrative use. 

13. Buttrick Caretaker's House - Liberty Street, Concord 

Another of the 1911 outbuildings for the new Buttrick home, this structure remains 
unchanged since its construction. Its architectural style closely matches that of the Carriage House 
across the driveway from it 

14. Buttrick Mansion Liberty Street, Concord 

Stedman Buttrick had this home built in 1911 on his family land. The large two-and- 
one-half story brick structure, Georgian in style, faces the Concord River. The exterior remains 
unchanged, but the interior spaces have been modified for use as a visitor center and park offices. 

IV. ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES 

Previous archeological investigations at Minute Man National Historical Park have located a 
number of historic sites with 18th-century remains, as well as a few areas of prehistoric activity. 

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The documentary evidence provides information about many more sites of historic occupation. The 
ongoing, five-year Minute Man archeological project will systematically examine selected areas of the 
park to locate and identify archeological remains at these and other historic and prehistoric sites 
before its completion in 1989. 

The potential archeological resources associated with extant structures and their yards were 
mentioned in the section on buildings. The sites listed in this section are those for which no 
aboveground building is extant; in a few cases, however, a portion or all of the foundation is visible. 

A. Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Sites 

Archeological excavations at the park have investigated 22 sites from this period. There is 
also one small foundation, not associated with an extant building, which has not been investigated. 
At some sites the buildings were abandoned prior to 1775, but in most instances they continued to 
be used during and after 1775. Documentary research has identified or suggested nearly two dozen 
other sites. Archeological investigation would be necessary to determine their existence and/or 
precisely locate them on the ground. Individual sites are labelled "L" (located) or "UNK" (unknown) 
in the descriptions that follow, and roads are identified by their modern names. 

As with the description of the buildings, it is important to note that most historic archeological 
sites in the park were farms that included a house, barn, and one or more other outbuildings. This 
is particularly important to remember when assessing the potential for archeological resources beyond 
the immediate ranger of a cellar foundation. In the narrative that follows, sites with documented 
activity are called "farm, tanyard, etc."; sites which seem to have included only a home will be 
labeled "house." 

1. David Fiske Farm Site, Fiske Hill, Lexington (L) 

This property was settled ca. 1655 and probably abandoned in 1721. Excavations have 
revealed two 17th-century cellars, a well, and other significant features and may provide evidence 
of early land clearance practices. It is one of very few rural sites from this period in eastern 
Massachusetts, and provides a relatively undisturbed context for analysis. 

2. Ebenezer Fiske Farm Site, Fiske Hill, Lexington (L) 

Ebenezer Fiske lived in the house until his death in 1775; his inventory provides one 
of the most detailed contemporary descriptions of a house, barn, and other outbuildings. His house 
was removed in 1852 and another house erected on the foundation; that structure was torn down 
in 1950s but the foundation remains extant. 

3. Bull Tavern Site, Marrett Street, Lexington (UNK) 

A tavern and adjoining farmland were likely occupied by John Muzzy in 1775. A previous 
attempt to locate remains of the structure was unsuccessful, although archeologists and historians 
are fairly confident that they know its approximate location. Documentary evidence of a late 17th- 
century/early 18th-century house and barn on this property also exists. 

4. Tabitha Nelson (Thomas Nelson, Sr.) Farm Site, Nelson Road, Lincoln (L) 

Previous archeological work located possible evidence of the house, although the 
construction of Airport Road and installation of utility corridors into Hanscom Air Force Base disturbed 
much of the structure. Additional archeological investigation may locate other features. 

5. Thomas Nelson, Jr. Farm Site, Nelson Road, Lincoln (L) 

The mid-1 8th century house, later enlarged, was removed in 1895 when a new structure 
was built on the old foundation. The foundation is visible, but its integrity has been compromised by 
the subsequent construction. Foundations of the 18th-century barn and other outbuildings and 
features outside the area of disturbance could yield additional information. 

6. Christopher Mudgeon House Site, Nelson Road, Lincoln (UNK) 

This 1730s house may have been built at or near the location of the Thomas Nelson, 
Jr. House, or on land nearby. The documentary record is unclear: this house's foundation may have 
been used for Thomas's house. It remains uncertain, therefore, whether or not this is a distinctly 



103 



separate site. If a separate house site exists, this site is particularly significant since it may not have 
post-1750 disturbances. 

7. Josiah Nelson Farm Site, Nelson Road, Lincoln (L) 

This property, developed by 1761, included a three-bay house with a central chimney, 
two outbuildings, a stone-lined well, two refuse areas, and a barn, several of which have been 
excavated. The extant foundation and other units provide valuable information on the use of space 
on 18th- and 19th-century farms. 

8. Daniel Brown House and Shop site, Nelson Road, Lincoln (L) 

Brown's house, built by 1722 and probably abandoned by 1762, was a two-story structure 
with a half cellar. It and a second structure, perhaps a shop of some sort, have been excavated, 
as have a well and materials that provide information about various yard activities. The foundation 
for the barn, located on the south side of the street, has never been found. The site is particularly 
valuable because it has not been subjected to 19th- and 20th-century disturbances. 

9. Unidentified Foundation, South Side of Nelson Road, Lincoln (L) 

George Nelson's 1902 sketch of Nelson Road identifies this visible foundation as Josiah 
Nelson's hop house, but there has never been any archeological investigation to document this 
usage. 

10. Nathaniel Whittemore Farm Site, North Great Road, Lincoln (UNK) 

It is unclear whether Whittemore's mid-1 8th century residence in Lincoln was a separate 
building or whether he lived in the house built earlier by Daniel Brown. Archeological investigations 
might determine the presence or absence of a house. 

11. Jacob Foster Farm Site, North Great Road, Lincoln (UNK) 

In 1775 Foster was a tenant on a farm west of Whittemore's property. The documentary 
record suggests that this property may have included a small house and barn; it was probably either 
the mid-1 8th century home of Ebenezer Lameson, Sr., or that of his son Timothy, who lived slightly 
to the east. Another mid-1 8th century house may also exist on the site. 

12. Phineas Allen Farm Site, North Great Road, Lincoln (UNK) 

Allen was a landless farmer, a tenant on Lincoln property in 1775. It is not clear whether 
he lived in the mid-century house of Ebenezer Lameson, Sr., however, or whether he was a hired 
man living in the home of William Smith. 

13. Samuel Hartwell Farm Site, Virginia Road, Lincoln (L) 

Built possibly by 1693, the house was altered and remodeled in the 19th century and 
a west end addition constructed in the early 20th century. It burned in 1968 but its massive chimney 
and foundation walls are extant. Although portions of the grounds have been excavated, further 
investigation may reveal the precise location of a blacksmith shop, barn, and other features. 

14. Joseph Mason Farm Site, Virginia Road, Lincoln (L) 

In 1775 this property included a house and barn; the former has been partially excavated. 
The barn and 1760s school on Mason's property has yet to be located. 

15. Joshua Brooks Tanyard Site, North Great Road, Lincoln (UNK) 

The tanyard was operating by 1725, and possibly as early as 1645. In 1745 there was 
a tan house and vats; other buildings, including a currier shop, were added by 1791, and a bark mill 
may have been erected shortly thereafter. The lot was empty of buildings by 1852. Architectural and 
archeological remains and features might provide information about colonial tanning practices and 
some information about commercial activities in general. 

16. Joshua Brooks House Site, North Great Road, Lincoln (UNK) 

This two-story wooden structure with its central chimney and integral lean-to was built 
about 1713 and destroyed about 1900. Although it has not been located, photographs exist that 
show it and the extant ca. 1781 Joshua Brooks House. 



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17. Thomas Brooks House Site, North Great Road, Lincoln (UNK) 

Built by Thomas Brooks ca. 1713, the house was abandoned and removed by 1812. 
Although there is no description in the documentary record, its location east of the present day 
Noah Brooks Tavern seems clear. 

18. Abel Brooks Farm Site, Lexington Road, Concord (UNK) 

His was the second of three houses on the site; the 17th-century house was removed 
by 1772; Abel's was built about 1788 and removed in 1880, and it was followed by a 19th-century 
structure. A barn and shop are listed in Abel's inventory and a later, 19th-century resident 
enumerated more barns, stables, and an overseer's house. 

19. Abner Wheeler Farm Site, Lexington Road, Concord (UNK) 

Deeds do not show Wheeler as a landholder here in 1775, even though he is clearly 
in residence. It is hypothesized that he and his family rented the house, barn, and property of the 
late Jacob Taylor. 

20. Samuel Fletcher Farm Site, Lexington Road, Concord (UNK) 

Fletcher's widow, Rebecca, lived on the farm in 1775; the house, bequeathed to her 
husband in 1694, was likely quite old. The barn was near the house across the road on the south. 

21. Nathan Stow Farm Site, Lexington Road, Concord (UNK) 

In 1775 Stow seems to have had a dwelling house and a small farm west of George 
Minot and east of Keturah Durant. He probably moved soon thereafter, and no precise information 
exists about his 1775 residence. 

22. Keturah Durant House Site, Lexington Road, Concord (UNK) 

A widow and shopkeeper, Durant lived in a modest house in 1775. There are no records 
of a separate shop or barn. By 1798 Ebenezer Hardy had purchased a share in the land and built 
his own house on a portion of it. 

23. Mary Burdeen House and Shop Site, Lexington Road, Concord (UNK) 

A seamstress, Burdeen owned a house with an adjoining shop. Her barn was on land 
she owned on the south side of Concord Road west of her home. 

24. Unidentified House Site, Lexington Road, Concord (L) 

The present appearance of the site is a depression, like that caused by a filled cellar 
hole. No identification has been suggested. 

25. Eliphelet Fox House Site, Lexington Road, Concord (L) 

This house, previously known by the misnomer "Casey's House," was built by 1666 and 
abandoned by 1852. Documentary evidence is clear, however, that it was never owned by Casey, 
an ex-slave, and it is even unlikely that he ever resided there. Although the archeological resources 
recovered to date do not reveal any data to suggest Casey's occupation, the faunal and ceramic 
subassemblages are important in the study of 17th- and 18th-century culture, and there is potential 
for further archeological investigation. 

26. George Minot House Site, Lexington Road, Concord (L) 

The frame of the house, built in 1720, was moved to this site and completed in 1797, 
although it lost its original chimney in the process. The building was later moved to Concord Center 
and torn down about 1898. 

27. John Flint Farm Site, Monument Street, Concord (L) 

The first Flint house, built after 1635, was demolished in 1880. In 1775 it included the 
house, a barn, and a separate shop. A 19th-century home may have been built on the same or a 
different foundation; it is not clear whether or not its construction affected the earlier site. The 
second house was moved across the street in 1924. Archeological investigations to date have 
located archeological remains; further excavation would be necessary to understand them. 



105 



28. David Brown Farm Site, Liberty Street, Concord (L) 

The original house on the site was built prior to 1644; David Brown built a home nearby 
sometime between 1755 and 1768. There were also two barns on his property, but they were 
probably not located on park property. Archeological investigations of the site have located other 
features on the property, but their identification is not yet clear. 

29. Ephraim Buttrick Farm Site, Liberty Street, Concord (L) 

This house was built ca. 1697-1700 and demolished in 1814. Archeological investigations 
have identified two foundations in front of the 1911 Buttrick Mansion: it is possible that they are from 
a house with an eastern addition or attached outbuilding. If the remains are of a single home, 
additional archeological investigation is needed to determine whether it is Ephraim's or Willard's. 

30. Willard Buttrick Farm Site, Liberty Street, Concord (L) 

This house was built in the early 1770s and demolished in 1849. Archeological 
investigations have identified two foundations in front of the 1911 Buttrick Mansion: it is possible 
that they are from a house with an eastern addition or attached outbuilding. If the remains are of 
a single home, additional archeological investigation is needed to determine whether it is Willard's 
or Ephraim's. 

31. Jonas Bateman Farm Site, Liberty Street, Concord (UNK) 

There was a dwelling on the Bateman property as early as 1729; it is not clear whether 
or not this was the home which Jonas Bateman lived in 1775. His farm also included a large barn, 
a small barn, and a mat shop. All were probably located north of Liberty Street, off park property. 
Archeological investigations have located possible evidence of the road and two possible trash pits. 

B. Nineteenth Century Sites 

Although the communities of Lexington, Lincoln, and Concord retained their rural character 
throughout the 19th century, there were a number of structures built on land that is now part of 
the park. The sites identified to date are described below. 

1. Bashian Barn Site, Fiske Hill, Lexington (L) 

The Bashians, 19th-century owners of the Ebenezer Fiske property, constructed a large 
barn about 1875. Its foundation is extant, cut the hillside west of the house foundation. 

2. North School Site, North Great Road, Lincoln (UNK) 

A brick schoolhouse was built in 1816 on the southwest corner of North Great road and 
Bedford Lane. After a number of years it fell into great disrepair, and a new school was built in 
1859. The latter school, also on North Great Road, may have been built on the same site or at a 
different location. It was used intermittently until 1896. 

3. Alfred Brooks House Site, North Great Road, Lincoln (UNK) 

This house was built about 1827, east of the Job Brooks House and west of the 
Lincoln-Concord line. Little information is available about it. 

4. George Clark House Site, Lexington Road, Concord (UNK) 

The 1898 highway map of Concord shows this house, with a front porch and rear ell, 
across the street from the Daniel Taylor House. 

5. Simmons House Site, Monument Street, Concord (L) 

The 1852 map of Concord shows this two-story house with rear ell. It was purchased 
by the National Park Service in 1967 and subsequently removed. 

6. Stedman Buttrick Farm Site, Liberty Street, Concord (L) 

Buttrick's house, built in 1850, was sited perpendicular to Liberty Street overlooking the 
hillside and the Concord River. The property included at least three outbuildings, but much of the 
site was destroyed during the construction of the 1911 Buttrick Mansion and its facilities. The 
foundation of the house itself was removed to allow archeologists to reach the 18th-century Buttrick 
house foundations beneath it. 



106 



7. Battle Lawn, Liberty Street, Concord (L) 

Edwin S. Barrett built a Victorian mansion on the hillside, beneath the Stedman Buttrick 
Farm, in 1879. It had outbuildings and a large gardener's house. It was removed about the time of 
World War I. 

C. Prehistoric Sites 

The Concord River Basin was the site of considerable prehistoric activity. Artifacts gathered 
by local collectors, as well as those excavated during formal archeological investigations, provide 
some information about the location of such activities on park land. The parkwide Minute Man 
archeological project will expand on the current baseline data when it conducts prehistoric sampling 
during the summer of 1989. The sites identified to date are as follows: 

Lincoln, north of Virginia Road - Possible Woodland. Pottery; bifaces; stone tool 
manufacture. 

19-MD-119: Lincoln, north of North Great Road - Late archaic; early Woodland; late Woodland. 
Stone tool manufacture; large stone artifacts; small edge tools. 

19-MD-102: West of Monument Street - Flakes; bifaces (not diagnostic); stone tool manufacture. 

19-MD-487: North Bridge Area - Late archaic; late Woodland. 

North Bridge Area - Bifaces; points; stone tool manufacture. 

North Bridge Area - Late archaic; late archaic-early Woodland; possible middle 
Woodland. Stone tool manufacture. 

19-MD-90: North Bridge Area - Late archaic-early Woodland. 

19-MD-91: North Bridge Area - Middle archaic; late archaic; possible early Woodland; middle 
Woodland; late Woodland. Prehistoric stone tool manufacture; historic gunflints. 

V. MUSEUM COLLECTIONS 

A. Historical Collections 

The historical collections at Minute Man include original furnishings, commemorative items, 
miscellaneous papers and manuscripts, book illustrations and photographs, and postcards. There 
are also representative architectural items. 

The bulk of the collection, several thousand items, comprises the original furnishings from The 
Wayside dating from the Lothrop occupancy (1883-1965). Although most of these items pre-date 
the death of Harriett M. Lothrop in 1924, and are on permanent installation in the house, a few 
postdate this time period and are in storage. 

Commemorative items, especially those associated with the Minute Man Statue and The North 
Bridge, comprise a collection of several dozen items at the present time. This group will undoubtedly 
grow, however, as additional items become available or are donated to the park. Specific 
commemorative pieces may be sought in conjunction with the new visitor center exhibits being 
planned by the design staff at the Harpers Ferry Center. 

There are small groupings of personal papers and manuscripts in the historical collections. Most 
prominent are items associated with the Ephraim Hartwell Family and their descendants. The 
collection also includes original artwork from some of the Margaret Sidney (Harriett Lothrop) books, 
including drawings by Childe Hassam and Hermann Heyer. The park monuments and buildings are 
documented in the collection of 19th- and early 20-century photographs and postcards that number 
about 1,300. 



107 



There are fewer than a dozen 18th-century objects associated with April 19 or military activities. 
This collection may also increase in conjunction with the visitor center exhibits currently being 
planned. 

Restoration and preservation work in the park has created an architectural collection. It includes 
samples ot wallpaper, paint colors and woodwork, plaster, mortar, hardware, and exterior fixtures. 
Most are from The Wayside, Ephraim Hartwell Tavern, and William Smith House, although some are 
from park buildings that have not been fully restored to date. There are also some original items, 
including doors and windows, from park buildings. More recent elements added to the park's historic 
buildings over the centuries have also been retained. 

The present historical collections will not be affected by the General Management Plan proposal. 
The specifics of the expanded interpretive program, however, may require the addition of more 
objects to these collections. Such decisions will be reached in design concept plans and the 
forthcoming, updated interpretive prospectus. 

B. Archival Collections 

The Minute Man museum collections include two distinct archival collections: the Harriett M. 
Lothrop Family Papers and the Allen French Research Papers. The first has been fully processed. 
Inventoried and cataloged; processing of the second will be completed during 1988. 

The Harriett M. Lothrop Family Papers, numbering about 11,000 items, includes manuscripts, 
correspondence, newspaper and magazine clippings, pamphlets, and assorted memorabilia 
assembled by Mrs. Lothrop and her daughter, Margaret, during the family's residence at The 
Wayside from 1883 until 1965. It includes a wealth of material related to 19th century literary, social, 
political, and preservation activities. 

The Allen French Research Papers include his notes accumulated over years of study of the 
events leading up to the start of the Revolutionary War, with particular emphasis on the 19th of 
April 1775. The materials may prove useful for future scholarly inquiry. 

C. Archeological Collections 

Minute Man archeological collections include artifacts and other specimens as well as some 
records (field notes and catalogs, journals, drawings, maps, photographs, and other types of 
documentation). The bulk of the collection is from excavations completed during the 1960s and 
1970s; some materials were excavated more recently. 

The Minute Man Archeological Collection Management Project, completed in 1987, reassessed 
and reclassified artifacts from some 20 previous excavations. These collections, numbering more than 
120,000 items, include some important 17th-century materials, a wealth of 18th- and 19th-century 
materials and miniscule representations of prehistoric and contemporary materials. Very little 
documentation exists to supplement these early collections of artifacts. 

Excavations from the 1980s, including a number of excavations for 106 compliance and the 
early work on the parkwide Minute Man archeological project, have already unearthed at least 
25,000 additional artifacts and specimens. There is detailed documentary material associated with 
each of these excavations. These collections are more representative of the full range of occupation 
of park lands, and include prehistoric artifacts as well as 17th-20th century collections of materials. 

VI. COMMEMORATIVE MONUMENTS AND MARKERS 

Numerous commemorative features have been added to the landscape since the fighting at The 
North Bridge in 1775, including several reconstructions of the bridge itself. Many of them are in or 
adjacent to park-owned land and help to interpret the park themes. The features, unless otherwise 
noted, are owned by the park. 



108 



A. Hayward Well Monument 

A granite marker, surrounded by stones and boulders, purports to mark the spot where 
James Hayward of Acton and a British soldier stopped to drink, and, spying the enemy, mortally 
wounded each other. Archeological investigations fail to support the conclusion that the correct well 
is marked, however. The marker was erected by the Lexington Historical Society in 1885 and 
donated to the park by the society in 1965. 

B. Bluff Monument 

A granite marker, mounted on the face of the Bluff at the intersection of Old Massachusetts 
Avenue, Marrett Road, and Marrett Street, describes the British use of the Bluff as a rallying point. 

C. Paul Revere Capture Plaque 

This bronze tablet, mounted in a large boulder, describes Revere's capture, the successful 
escape of Dawes and Prescott, and Revere's subsequent release. It was erected prior to 1902. 

D. Meriam's Corner Monument 

A granite marker, erected in the stone wall at the corner, describes the Americans' attack 
on the British as they retreated from The North Bridge. The Town of Concord purchased the land 
from the owner of the John Meriam House and erected the monument. It is still owned by the town. 

E. Hawthorne Centennial Plaque 

This bronze tablet, mounted in a boulder, was placed along the arch path on July 4, 1904, 
at the exercises celebrating the centennial of Nathaniel Hawthorne's birth. Harriett M. Lothrop, noted 
children's author and preservationist, organized the exercises. 

F. Concord Fight Plaque 

A bronze tablet, mounted in a stone on the north side of the walkway leading to The North 
Bridge, describes the action that occurred there on April 19, 1775. The text was written by Allen 
French, noted Concord author and historian. The tablet is on town land administered by the National 
Park Service. 

G. British Soldiers Grave Monument 

A slate plaque, mounted in the stone wall on the south side of the walkway leading to The 
North Bridge, commemorates the two British soldiers who died at the fight. It is inscribed with four 
lines of the epic poem "Lines" by James Russell Lowell. The grave is located on town land 
administered by the National Park Service. 

H. Battle Monument 

This granite obelisk was erected in 1836 and dedicated July 4, 1837. Ralph Waldo Emerson 
wrote his famous "Concord Hymn" ("By the rude bridge which arched the flood ... ") to be sung at 
the dedication. A marble tablet, mounted on the east facade of the obelisk, relates the events of the 
fighting. The monument is on town land administered by the National Park Service. 

I. The North Bridge 

The present bridge was built in 1956, on the original site, and may resemble the original 
more closely than any of the earlier reconstructions. It may have been built on the original abutments 
but is higher above the water than was its 18th-century predecessor since the land at the west end 
of the bridge had to be raised about 5 feet in 1875 to create a viewing area for the Minute Man 
Statue. 

The bridge which spanned the Concord River in this location in 1775 was removed in 1793 
when a number of roads in the western portion of the town were realigned. The first reconstruction, 
at the time of the centennial, had a number of Victorian decorative features and was severely 
damaged in a flood in 1888. It was replaced with a sturdier structure that lasted for 20 years. When 
that bridge was severely damaged in 1908, it was replaced with a concrete structure that lasted until 
the flooding which followed Hurricane Diane in 1955. The bridge is owned by the Town of Concord 
and administered by the National Park Service. 



109 



J. Minute Man Statue 

Daniel Chester French, a local artist, was commissioned to create a bronze statue of a 
minute man for the centennial of the fight at the bridge. The minute man, with his musket in one 
hand and his other hand on his coat and plow, represented the embattled New England farmer. 
The statue was cast at the Ames Foundry in Chickopee, Massachusetts, and mounted on a base 
of granite from Westford. The statue is owned by the Town of Concord and administered by the 
National Park Service. 

The erection of the Battle Monument at the east end of the bridge had always concerned 
Concordians because that was the end at which the British had stood. Stedman Buttrick, grandson 
of Major John Buttrick, donated 1 acre of land at the west side where the old bridge had stood on 
the condition that the town rebuild it to allow access to the statue from the east. 

K. DAR Plaque 

An aluminum tablet, mounted in stone, was placed at the west end of the statue area to 
commemorate the sacrifice of Captain Isaac Davis of Acton, who lost his life in the fighting. The 
Daughters of the American Revolution donated the plaque in April 1975. 

L. Muster Field Monument 

A granite marker, embedded in the stone wall on the west side of Liberty Street by the 
muster field, identifies it as the field where the minutemen and militia formed before marking down 
to The North Bridge. 

M. John Buttrick Bas-relief Monument 

A bronze bas-relief of Major John Buttrick is located on the stone wall on the east side of 
liberty Street, near the North Bridge Visitor Center parking lot. E.T. Quinn, a sculptor in Daniel 
Chester French's studio, created the piece in 1915. It is mounted on an inscribed granite monument 
which identifies Buttrick's contributions, as well as the donation of the memorial to the town from the 
estate of George Edward Messer. The relief is owned by the Town of Concord. 



110 



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VISITOR CARRYING CAPACITY 

Parking Lots and Pulloffs 

North Bridge Visitor Center 
North Bridge Parking (town lot) 
North Bridge Overflow Parking 
Fiske Hill Parking Area 
Battle Road Visitor Center 
The Wayside Parking Area 
Smith House 

Paul Revere Capture Site 
Hartwell Tavern 
Fiske Hill Pulloff 

Total Spaces 293 20 

Park multipliers (as determined by visitor survey) 

Visitors/car 3.4 

Visitors/bus 35 

Total Visitors 996 700 

Approximate total instantaneous 

vehicular carrying capacity 1 ,700 



Total Parking Spaces 


Car 


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44 


4 


58 


4 


65 




22 




32 


12 


28 




15 




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112 



APPENDIX E: CLASSIFICATION OF PARK ROADS 

The classification of park roads is based on the functional classification system described in the 
NPS "Park Road Standards" (1984). Each park segment has been classified, according to its 
intended use or function, as a public use road or an administrative road. 

PUBLIC USE ROADS 

All roads that are intended principally for the use of visitors for access to and within the park are 
classified as public use roads. These roads are defined in the NPS standards and subdivided into 
the following four classes: 

Class I: Principal Road/Rural Parkway - This road class includes main access routes, 
circulatory tour routes, or thoroughfares for visitors. (There are no Class I park roads in the 
park.) 

Class II: Connector Road - Connector roads provide access to areas of scenic, scientific, 
recreational, or cultural interest. 

Class III: Special Purpose Road - Special purpose roads provide circulation within public use 
areas, such as Campgrounds, picnic areas, visitor center complexes, and historic sites. They 
generally serve low-speed traffic and are often designed for one-way circulation. 

Class IV: Primitive Road - Primitive roads provide circulation through remote areas and/or 
access to primitive campgrounds and undeveloped areas. They frequently have no minimum 
design standards, and their use may be limited to specially equipped vehicles. 

ADMINISTRATIVE ROADS 

The administrative road category consists of all public and nonpublic roads intended principally for 
administrative uses. Administrative roads are subdivided into two classes: 

Class V: Administrative Access Road - This class includes all public roads intended for access 
to administrative developments or structures, such as offices, employee quarters, or utility areas. 

Class VI: Restricted Road - Restricted roads are normally closed to the public. They include 
patrol roads, fire roads, truck trails, and other similar roads. 

Access to Minute Man National Historical Park is provided by town roads and state and federal 
highways. Park roads consist mainly of internal circulation roads to parking areas, administrative 
facilities, and historical structures. 

There are no park roads in the Class I category. The only Class II road is the access road from 
Airport Road to the Battle Road Visitor Center. The remaining roads are Class III (internal public 
use circulation roads) and Classes V and VI (administrative roads). The Road Classification table 
shows each road's functional classification and other pertinent information. 



113 



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BIBLIOGRAPHY 

BOSTON NATIONAL HISTORIC SITES COMMISSION 

1958 "The Lexington-Concord Battle Road." Interim Report to the Congress ot the United 
States. On file at Minute Man National Historical Park. 

CARR, LYNCH ASSOCIATES 

1979 "A Plan for Hanscom and Its Neighbors." Environmental Design, Cambridge, MA. 

CENTRAL TRANSPORTATION PLANNING STAFF 

1984 "Hanscom Area Traffic Study, Phase II." Draft. Boston, MA. 

FRENCH, ALLEN 

1984 The Day of Concord and Lincoln. Reprinted by Eastern National Park and Monument 
Association. 

GROSS, ROBERT A. 

1976 The Minutemen and Their World. Hill and Wang, New York. 

1982 "Culture and Cultivation: Agriculture and Society in Thoreau's Concord." Journal of 
American History, Vol 69 (1), June 1982. 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL OF DESIGN, DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE 
ARCHITECTURE 

1985 Alternative Futures for Minute Man National Historical Park. Cambridge, MA. 

LAND USE CONFERENCE COMMITTEE 

1983 Route to Tomorrow: Challenges and Choices. Report to the Town of Lincoln, MA. 

LOTHROP, MARGARET M. 

1968 The Wayside: Home of Authors. American Book Company, Reprinted 1983 by Eastern 
National Park and Monument Association. 

MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL COMMISSION 

1979 Cultural Resources in Massachusetts: A Model for Management. 

1980 "MHC Reconnaissance Survey Report: Concord." 

1980b "MHC Reconnaissance Survey Report: Lincoln." 

n.d. "Comprehensive Cultural Resources Survey of Lexington," by Anne Grady and Nancy 
Seasholes. 

MILLER, PAMELA, NATHALIE RICE, LYNNE SEELEY AND VIRGINIA STAPLES 

1983 Groundwater Protection, Town of Lincoln. Prepared by Graduate Department of Urban 
and Environmental Policy, Tufts University. 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

1968a "Elisha Jones or 'Bullet Hole House, Historic Structures Report," by John Luzader and 
Benjamin J. Zerby. Denver Service Center. 

1968b Major John Buttrick House, Historic Structures Report Part 1, Historical Data Section, 
by John F. Luzader. Washington. 

1986c "Samuel Hartwell House and Ephraim Hartwell Tavern, Historic Structures Report, Part 
1, Historical Data Section," by John Luzader. Denver Service Center. 



116 



1968d The Wayside, Historic Structure Report, Part II, Historical Data Section, by Robert D. 
Ronsheim. Washington. 

1969a Captain Brown's House, Historic Data, by Ricardo Torres-Reyes. Washington. 

1969b Farming and Land Uses, General Study, Minute Man National Historical Park, by Ricardo 
Torres-Reyes. Washington. 

1970 The Wayside Historic Grounds Report, by Anna Coxe Toogood. Washington. 

1973 Historic Structure Report, The Wayside Barn Architectural Data Section, by Orville W. 
Carroll. Denver Service Center. 

1974 Historic Structure Report, A Comparative Study, Ephraim Hartwell Tavern, by Anna Coxe 
Toogood. Denver Service Center. 

1965 Master Plan, Minute Man National Historical Park. On file at Denver Service Center. 

1976 Transportation Study, Minute Man National Historical Park. Denver Service Center. 

1980 "Archeological Overview and Evaluation, Minute Man National Historical Park," by Vernon 
G. Baker. Boston. 

n.d. "Historic Grounds Report, Battle Road: Fiske Hill Area, Minute Man National Historical 
Park," by John Luzader. Denver Service Center. 

1982 "Cultural Resource Inventory, Minute Man National Historical Park." Boston. 

1984 Quartz Flakes and Turtle Bones: The North Bridge Site at Minute Man National Historical 
Park, by Linda A. Towle, Boston. 

1985a Archeological Collections Management at Minute Man National Historical Park, 
Massachusetts," by Linda A. Towle and Darcie A. MacMahon, eds. 4 vols. ACMP Series 
No. 4. Boston. 

1985b The Scene of the Battle, 1775, Historic Grounds Report, Minute Man National Historical 
Park, by Joyce Malcolm. Boston. 

1986a Resources Management Plan, Minute Man National Historical Park. Concord, MA. 

1986b "Annual Statement for Interpretation, Minute Man National Historical Park." Concord, 
MA. 

1 988 Draft General Management Plan/Environmental Assessment/Land Protection Plan, Minute 
Man National Historical Park. On file at Denver Service Center. 

TOWN OF CONCORD, NATURAL RESOURCES COMMISSION 

1985 Town of Concord, 1985 Open Space Plan. Prepared by Conservation Restriction Advisory 
Committee. Concord, MA. 



117 



PLANNING TEAM AND CONSULTANTS 



DENVER SERVICE CENTER 

Maurice L. Miller, Transportation Planner 

Robert Rothweiler, Team Captain/Natural Resources Specialist 

Teresa Urbanowski, Landscape Architect 

A. Whit Watkins, Planner 



MINUTE MAN NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

Fredrick A. Szarka, Acting Superintendent 
Robert Nash, Former Superintendent 
Lynne A. Leopold-Sharp, Former Curator 
Dan Dattilio, Chief Ranger 

NORTH ATLANTIC REGION 

Terry Savage, Chief, Planning and Design Office 

Lauren McKean, Community Planner 

Isabel Mancinelli, Park Planner 

Bob Holzheimer, Landscape Architect 

CONSULTANTS 

Charles P. Clapper, Associate Regional Director, Planning and 

Resource Preservation, North Atlantic Region 
Park Staff, Minute Man National Historical Park 
Douglas P. Sabin, Historian, Minute Man National Historical Park 
Robert Schreffler, FHWA Liaison, Denver Service Center 
Lou DeLorme, FHWA Liaison, Denver Service Center 
Larry Tillman, Interpretive Planner (IP Team Captain), Harpers Ferry Center 
Clifford Soubier, Interpretive Planner, Harpers Ferry Center 
Dwight T. Pitcaithley, Regional Historian, North Atlantic Region 
Teresa Wallace, Curator, Minute Man National Historical Park 
Alan T. Synenki, Supervisory Archeologist, Eastern Archeology Field Laboratory 
Linda A. Towle, Supervisory Archeologist, Eastern Archeology Field Laboratory 
Cynthia Kryston, Chief of Interpretation, North Atlantic Region 
Gerald L. Kirwan, Chief, Land Resources, North Atlantic Region 
Edie Shean-Hammond, Public Affairs Officer, North Atlantic Region 
David E. Clark, Chief, Environmental Compliance Division, North Atlantic Region 
Orville Carroll, Retired Historical Architect, North Atlantic Region 
Otto Mayr, Chief, Project Development, Region Federal Highway Administration, EDFO 
The Honorable James DeNormandie, Retired State Senator 
Thomas Boylston Adams, Author 
John Quincy Adams, Lincoln Conservation Commission 



118 

• U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1 9 89-0-6 7 3-0 38/OoOOS 






As the nation's principal conservation agency, the Department of the Interior has basic responsibility 
for most of our nationally owned public lands and natural and cultural resources. This includes 
fostering wise use of our land and water resources, protecting our fish and wildlife, preserving the 
environmental and cultural values of our national parks and historical places, and providing for the 
enjoyment of life through outdoor recreation. The department assesses our energy and mineral 
resources and works to ensure that their development is in the best interests of all our people. The 
department also promotes the goals of the Take Pride in America campaign by encouraging 
stewardship and citizen responsibility for the public lands and promoting citizen participation in their 
care. The department also has a major responsibility for American Indian reservation communities 
and for people who live in island territories under U.S. administration. 



Publication services were provided by the graphics and editorial staffs of the Denver Service Center. 
NPS D-56A September 1989 



Lpr. 



UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA LIBRARIES 



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